Tribunals

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Original constitution do not
have tribunals. 42nd CAA included it (Swaran Singh Committee recommended)
</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>‘Tribunal’ is a
/span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>administrative body</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> established for the purpose
of discharging </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>quasi-judicial
duties</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>An Administrative Tribunal
is </span><span style='text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>neither a Court
nor an executive body rather a midway between the two. However, Tribunals
are part of Judiciary system ( Chandra Kumar Case 1997)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>The Tribunal has to observe
the </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt'>principles of natural justice or act in accordance with the
statutory provisions</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt'> under which the Tribunal is established. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Source of power for creation
of Tribunals </span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Constitution - 323A
(Administrative) , 323B (certain subjects) , 262 (inter-state river
waters) etc.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Legislation Ex: NGT Act,
Companies Act, Armed Forces Tribunal Act </span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Article
323A deals with administrative tribunals. </span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>Only Parliament</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> empowered to create
administrative tribunals for adjudication of disputes of recruitment and
service conditions of central, </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>state</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>, </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>local</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>, public
corporations and other public authorities </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>- An Act to provide for the
adjudication by Administrative Tribunals of disputes with respect to
recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to public
services.</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Establishment of Central
Administrative Tribunal - matters related to central authorities</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>State Administrative
Tribunals - matters related to state authorities - formed by GOI on
request of States</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Joint Administrative
Tribunals - two or more states request </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Only one level of
tribunals.</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'> No hierarchy of administrative tribunals<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>(no original/appellate)</span><
/li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Article
323B deals with tribunals for other matters.</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>both</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> Parliament and </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>state legislatures</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> are
authorized to establish tribunals for various purposes like taxation,
foreign exchange, industry and labour disputes, import and exports
across customs frontiers,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>
ceiling
on urban property, rent, food stuffs, e</span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>lections to Parliament and state legislatures etc.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Hierarchy of tribunals can
be made (original, appellate etc.)</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Article 262 empowered
Inter-state Water disputes tribunal</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Cyber
Appellate Tribunal (CyAT)</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>matters
related to information technology</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Telecom
Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT)</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:6.6361in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Telecom
disputes</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.2548in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>National
Green Tribunal</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>NGT
Act 2010</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Cases
related to environment protection</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.2833in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Disposal
within 6 months</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>River
water disputes tribunal</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Under Article 262. But not
under 323B</span></p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>National
Company Law Tribunal NCLT</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:6.6361in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Matters
related to companies; Companies Act 2013</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.2548in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>National
GST appellate tribunal </p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
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<tr>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Securities
Appellate Tribunal </p>
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vertical-align:top;width:6.6361in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>to
hear and dispose of appeals against orders passed by the Securities and
Exchange Board of India or by an adjudicating officer under the Act </p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Debt
Recovery Tribunal</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-GB>Recovery
of Debts<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Act 1993</p
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Central
Administrative Tribunal</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Matters
related to public servants. Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Real
Estate Appellate Tribunals</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>RERA
Act 2016</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Within
60 days</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Foreign
Tribunals</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Foreigners
(Tribunals) Order, 1964 under Foreigners Act 1964</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt="Imp Prelims" src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>Constitution provided to Parliament/</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>State legislature</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> for tribunals to adjudicate election disputes
to Parliament and State legislature</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>. </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>So far, no such tribunal is established (Art.
323B).</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>According
to the constitution, </span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt'>a direct right of appeal to the Supreme Court from tribunals is
conferred. However,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span>
<span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>SC held in
Chandra Kumar Case, 1997 that appeals first go to HC</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>323A, 323B
excludes jurisdiction of all courts except SC under Article 136 (Special
Leave petition)</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Rojer
Mathew case 2019</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Tribunal
members appointment</p>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Qualification and
appointment rules w.r.t Tribunals</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Qualification
and appointment rules w.r.t Tribunal members conferred primacy on
Government </span><span style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>which is invalid </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Lack of
judicial dominance in the Search-cum-Selection Committee is in direct
contravention of the doctrine of separation of powers and an
encroachment on the judicial domain</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Quashed
</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Verdana;font-size:
11.0pt'>Tribunal, Appellate Tribunal and other Authorities
(Qualifications, Experience and other Conditions of Service of
Members) Rules, 201</span><span style='font-family:Verdana;
font-size:11.0pt'>7</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>However,
Central Govt is empowered to frame rules related to tribunals</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Members of tribunals
should not be given rank and status akin to Constitutional
functionaries </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="CentralAdministrativeTribunalCAT">Central Administrative Tribunal CAT</h2>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>established by the
Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Mandate: Adjudication of
disputes with respect to recruitment and conditions of service of persons
appointed to public services and posts in connection with the affairs of
the Union or other local authorities within the territory of India or
under the control of Government of India and all such connected matters</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>All India services, central
civil services, central civil posts, civilian employees in defence
forces </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>USP: </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>It is not bound by the
procedure laid down in the Civil Procedure Code. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Guided by principles of
natural justice</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Multi member body consisting
of members drawn from both the </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>judicial</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> and </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>administrative</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> streams</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Members appointed by
President and status of High court judges </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Secretarial staff of Parliament,
defence forces, servants of SC</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> are excluded
from it.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Appeals against CAT decisions should first be
appealed to High Court and later SC</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="NationalCompanyLawTribunalNCLT">National Company Law Tribunal NCLT</h2>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Statutory, Constituted by
the Corporate Affairs Ministry in June 2016</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Under the </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Companies
Act, 2013 [created 4 statutory bodies Tribunal, Reporting, Fraud,
Education]</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It r</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>eplaced Company Law Board (CLB)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It has been set up at 10
locations, including the national capital, Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and
Chennai</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Powers: To delegate inquiry
related to proceedings before it, securing assistance of a magistrate or
collector to take possession of property etc.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Finish case in three months</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Appeal: </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>NCLAT</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Cases</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Arbitration, compromise,
Merger &amp; Acquisition </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Converting Public ltd. To
private ltd.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Filing Class action suits
(Satyam investors)</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="NationalGreenTribunal">National Green Tribunal</h2>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Established under the
National Green Tribunal Act 2010 =&gt; </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Statutory body</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Mandate</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>effective and expeditious
disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation
of forests and other natural resources </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>enforcement of any legal
right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for
damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or
incidental thereto</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>disposal of applications or
appeals finally </span><span style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:
underline;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>within 6 months of filing </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>The Tribunal shall</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> not be bou</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>nd by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil
Procedure, 1908, but shall be</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> guided by principles of natural
justice.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>New Delhi is the Principal
Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai
shall be the other four place of sitting of the Tribunal</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>It adjudicates matters
relating to following Acts-</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Water (Prevention and
Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Air (Prevention and Control
of Pollution) Act, 1981</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Environment (Protection)
Act, 1986 </span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt="Imp Prelims" src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>The Public
Liability Insurance Act, 1991</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Forest
Conservation Act<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>1980</spa
n></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Biological Diversity Act
2002</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='color:#000000;color:#000000;background:#00CCFF;mso-highlight:#00CCFF;
margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;text-indent:-.3333in;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><img
width=16 height=16 alt="Imp Prelims" src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png"><img
width=16 height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Note: Wildlife protection Act 1972, Indian Forest Act
1927, Forest Rights Act 2006 is not under jurisdiction of NGT</span></p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>India is the third country
to have full-fledged green tribunal after New Zealand and Australia.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Consequent on coming into
effect of the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010, the National Environment
Tribunal Act stands repealed. </span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>It had earlier proposed to establish a National Environment
Tribunal under the National Environment Tribunal, Act 1995. But the National
Environment Tribunal never became functional</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>National Green Tribunal
(NGT) sets stringent conditions for commercial use of Groundwater</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>