Others

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<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="ConsumerCourt">Consumer Court</h2>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Special purpose court
that deals with consumer disputes and grievances</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>These are </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>quasi
judicial</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>
bodies </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Function</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>To maintain fair
practice by sellers to consumers</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>to provide some extra
privilege to the consumers and to maintain fair practice by the seller
or the service provider towards the consumer</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Features</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Easy to register a
complaint</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Need not employ an
advocate; self-defend </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Required
to pay nominal fee [Lok Adalats- no fee]</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>The court will only
give a verdict in favour of the consumers/customers</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> if
they have proof of exploitation</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>, i.e., bills or other documents. If no proof,
difficult for consumer to win.</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Consumer Courts
(Consumer Dispute Redressal Commissions) at National, State and District
level will be setup as per Consumer Protection Act 2019</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="FastTrackCourtsFTC">Fast Track Courts FTC</h2>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>11th Finance Commission
recommended Fast Track Courts for disposal of long pending Sessions and
other cases</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>FTCs were to be
established by the state governments in consultation with the respective
High Courts</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>The judges for these
FTCs were appointed on an adhoc basis and are selected by High court
judges</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>FTCs were initially
established for a period of five years (2000-2005) and later extended
until 2010-2011. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>GOI stopped funding the
states for continuation of FTCs. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>As of now, it is up to
the states to continue with FTCs while centre stopped the scheme</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="SpecialCourts">Special Courts</h2>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Setup/designated for quick
and efficient disposal of cases relating to a specific field of
legislation </span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>Setup=&gt; New infrastructure for setting up new court</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>Designated =&gt; Additional responsibilities to existing court</p>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Ex: Special courts are
established for adjudicating offences under Prevention of Corruption Act
, Family Courts under Family Courts Act 1984, </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Special courts take lesser
time as they are involved with particular type of cases unlike normal
courts who have to deal cases randomly of all types</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>They </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>do not fall</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> under Alternative Dispute
Redressal mechanism like Quasi-Judicial bodies or Tribunals</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Challenges</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Bureaucratic
bottleneck in constituting special courts</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Lack of oversight and
data</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Inadequate personnel
and facilities</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Uneven distribution</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>no uniform law to
authoritatively govern over the functioning of special court</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Special courts are an
innovative tool to increase Judicial reach across sectors and locations,
but there is need of a defined mechanism to make them truly effective.</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="HumanRightsCourts">Human Rights Courts </h2>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Established under Protection
of Human Rights Act 1993 </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>in every
district</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Objective: Speedy trail of
Human right violations</span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Setup by State Govt in
consultation with Chief Justice of HC</span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>
[Setup
by State Govt and not central Govt)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>For each Human right court,
state govt appoints a public prosecutor, special public prosecutor</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="FamilyCourts">Family Courts</h2>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt' lang=en-US>Family Courts are established under <span style='font-weight:
bold'>Family Courts Act 1984</span> with a view to <span style='font-weight:
bold'>promote conciliation and secure speedy settlement</span> of disputes
relating to marriage and family affairs</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Reasons">Reasons</h3>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>For resolving family
disputes, emphasis on conciliation and achieving socially desirable
results but not on adherence to rigid rules and procedure that regular
procedure demands</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Law commission
recommended to adopt an approach different from that of ordinary civil
proceedings in case of family disputes</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Objectives">Objectives</h3>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Expertise and Expedite</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Family courts are
specialized courts that exclusively deal with family matters and hence
may have necessary expertise to deal them</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>To expedite</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Mechanism of
conciliation of family disputes</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Inexpensive</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Flexible
and informal proceedings</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Features">Features</h3>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>State Govts in
consultation with HC provides for establishment of Family Courts </span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>[Setup by State Govt
and not central Govt)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Act made it obligatory
to constitute Family Courts in the city/town with a population
exceeding10 lakhs</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Also, the act enables
State Govts to setup family courts in other areas</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Proceedings</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>In the </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>first</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> instance, obligatory
to provide for </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>reconciliation/settlement</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>. In this stage,
proceedings are informal and flexible</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Provides for
association of social welfare agencies,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
</span>counsellors etc in this stage. Services of medical and welfare
experts may also be used</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Parties
are not entitled as a right to be represented by legal practitioner.
However, if court may seek in interest of justice</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Provides </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>only one right of appeal</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> which
shall lie to High Court </span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='color:#000000;margin:0in;text-indent:-.1666in;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5' lang=en-US id="GramNyayalayas"<img
width=16 height=16 alt="Imp Prelims" src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;Gram
Nyayalayas </h2>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Under </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Gram
Nyayalayas Act 2008</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>, Gram Nyayalayas constituted at the grass roots level
to provide access to justice to the citizens at their doorsteps and
thereby ensuring justice is not denied to any citizen due to social,
economic and other disabilities</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Reasons">Reasons</h3>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>DPSP</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Setting up of Gram
Nyayalayas in rural areas would bring to the people the speedy,
affordable, substantial justice</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Law Commission
recommended setting up of Gram Nyayalayas </span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Features">Features</h3>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>They are statutory</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Gram Nyayalaya shall be
court of Judicial Magistrate of first class</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Presiding
Officer</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> -
</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>Nyayadhikari</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> appointed by State Govt in consultation with HC</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Nyayadhikaris are
strictly </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>judicial officers</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> and have same powers as First Class Magistrates
working under HC</span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;background:#00CCFF;mso-highlight:#00CCFF;
margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><img
width=16 height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Representation shall
be given to the members of the SC, ST, women and others</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Established for every
panchayat at intermediate level or group of contiguous panchayat at
intermediate level in a district</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>These are </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>mobile
courts</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> and
the seat is located at the headquarters of the intermediate panchayat.
They will go to villages and work there and dispose the cases</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Powers: Powers of</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> both
Criminal and Civil Courts</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Gram Nyayalayas shall
try</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> criminal cases, civil suits, claims or disputes</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> which are specified
in the first schedule and second schedule of the Gram Nyayalaya Act</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Civil: Exercise the
powers of civil court with certain modifications and shall follow </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>special
procedure</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>
as provided in the act</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:1.125in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Criminal: Shall follow </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>summary
procedure in criminal trail</span></li>
</ul>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>Both Central<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
</span>Govt and State Govt empowered to amend</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> first and second
schedule of the act</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>It shall </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>make
use of conciliators</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> to be appointed for trying to settle disputes as far
as possible by conciliation</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Award:</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Order and Judgement
shall be deemed to be a decree</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>To avoid delay in
execution, they shall follow summary procedure</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Appeal</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Criminal cases: Appeal
lie to Sessions court which shall be heard and disposed of within 6
months from appeal filing date </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Civil cases: Appeal
lie to District court which shall be heard and disposed of within period
of 6 months from appeal filing date </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Shall be </span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>guided by principles of natural justice</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> and subject to any
rule made by HC. </span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt="Imp Prelims" src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Gram Nyayalayas</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> shall </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>not</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> be bounded</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> by</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> the rules of evidence
provided in the </span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Indian Evidence Act 1872</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="NyayaPanchayats">Nyaya Panchayats </h3>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Still a concept. It is
proposed in Draft Nyaya Panchayat Bill, 2009</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Objectives </span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Decentralized dispute
resolution</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Provisions</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>There shall be constituted
a Nyaya Panchayat for every Village Panchayat area or a group of Village
Panchayat areas </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Every Nyaya Panchayat shall
consist of five </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Verdana;
font-size:11.0pt'>Panchas</span><span style='font-family:Verdana;
font-size:11.0pt'> who shall be elected by the voters enrolled in the
voter’s list of that Village Panchayat or group of Village Pancha
ats,
in the manner to be prescribed by the State Government:</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Every Panch shall hold the
office of </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Verdana;
font-size:11.0pt'>Nyaya Panchayat Pramukh</span><span style='font-family:
Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'> for a period of one year, by rotation, on the
basis of seniority by age</span></li>
</ul>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>There shall be a </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Nyaya
Sahayak</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> in
every Nyaya Panchayat to assist the Nyaya Panchayat in discharge of its
duties</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>There shall be a Chowkidar
attached to every Nyaya Panchayat who reports to Pramukh for any offence
committed, violation of peace and order </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Both civil and criminal
jurisdiction<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></li
</ul>
</ul>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>It is recommended by </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>LM Sanghvi Committee 1986</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>