Alternate Dispute Resolution ADR

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="AlternateDisputeResolutionMechanismsADRs">Alternate Dispute Resolution Mechanisms ADRs</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Arbitration, Conciliation, Mediation, Negotiation, Lok Adalats
(,Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats, Permanent Lok Adalats)</p>

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lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></p

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Arbitration">Arbitration</h3>

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>It is a procedure in which a
dispute is submitted, by agreement of the parties, to one or more
arbitrators who make a binding decision on the dispute and the </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>binding
decision is enforceable in the courts </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>In choosing arbitration, the
parties opt for a </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>private dispute resolution procedure instead of going to
court. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Arbitration is often the
first alternative amongst various ways to manage contract related disputes
and it holds the promise of flexibility, speed and cost-effectiveness.</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Conciliation">Conciliation</h3>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Conciliation
is a less formal form of arbitration. This process <span style='font-weight:
bold'>does not require an existence of any prior agreement</span>. Any party
can request the other party to appoint a conciliator. One conciliator is
preferred but two or three are also allowed. In case of multiple conciliators,
all must act jointly. If a party rejects an offer to conciliate, there can be
no conciliation. </p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Mediation">Mediation</h3>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Mediation
aims to assist two (or more) disputants in reaching an agreement. The parties
themselves determine the conditions of any settlements reached— rather t
an
accepting something imposed by a third party. The disputes may involve (as
parties) states, organizations, communities, individuals or other
representatives with a vested interest in the outcome. </p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Negotiation">Negotiation</h3>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Negotiation
is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to produce an agreement upon
courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective advantage, or to
craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is the primary method of
alternative dispute resolution.</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:9.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

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lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Arbitration">Arbitration</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Arb-Med-Arb">Arb-Med-Arb </h3>

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Arb-Med-Arb<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Arbitration-Mediation-Arbitration
is a
process where </span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>A dispute is first referred
to arbitration before mediation is attempted. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>If mediation works, mediated
settlement may be recorded as a consent award. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>If mediation fails, they may
continue with the arbitration proceedings</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

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lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h3>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="ArbitrationandConciliationAct1996">Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996</h3>

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>The Arbitration and
Conciliation Act 1996 is an Act that regulates </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>domestic</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> arbitration in India. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It was amended in 2015, to
make </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>arbitration a preferred
mode of settlement of commercial disputes</span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> and making India a hub of </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>international</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> commercial arbitration</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It provides for arbitration
authority to cure defects in award by itself </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It provides for setting side
of Arbitral award and can apply for the court </span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="ArbitrationandConciliation(Amendment)Act,2019">Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2019</h3>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Amends the Arbitration
and Conciliation Act, 1996 to deal with </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>domestic and international
arbitration</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Arbitration
Council of India (ACI)</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Independent body to be
setup by the act</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Promotion of
alternative dispute redressal mechanisms </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>maintaining a
depository of arbitral judgments made in India and abroad</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>framing policies for
grading arbitral institutions and accrediting arbitrators,</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>maintenance of uniform
professional standards for all alternate dispute redressal matters.</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Appointment
of arbitrators will now be done by the</span><span style='font-weight:
bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>
Supreme Court designated arbitral institutions</span><span
style='text-decoration:underline;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>,</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'> which was earlier used
to be done by parties themselves</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>It seeks to</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'> remove
time restriction</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt'> for international commercial arbitrations (earlier tries to
dispose matters within 12 months)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Completion of </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>written
submissions to be completed within six months of the appointment of the
arbitrators</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="ArbitrationHubinIndia">Arbitration Hub in India</h3>

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Arbitration
and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015</span><span style='font-family:
"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> envisages various ways to encourage
foreign investment by projecting India as an investor friendly country
having a sound legal framework and ease of doing business in India.</span></li>
</ul>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>B.N Srikrishna
High-level committee</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Centre has constituted
a high-level committee, led by the former Supreme Court judge</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> B.N.
Srikrishna</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>,
to draw a road map to make India a global arbitration hub.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Report features</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;
font-weight:normal;font-style:normal'>
<li value=1 style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;
font-weight:normal;font-style:normal;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>Part 1 -</span></li>
<ul type=square style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>measures to improve
the overall quality and performance of arbitral institutions in India
and to promote the standing of the country as preferred seat of
arbitration.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline;
font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Arbitration Promotion
Council of India</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> (APCI),</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Setting up of APCI
autonomous body</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>having
representatives from all the stakeholders for grading arbitral
institutions in India</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>recognize
professional institutes providing for acceleration of arbitration</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Creation of a
specialist arbitration bench to deal with commercial disputes in the
domain of the courts</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>National Litigation
Policy must promote arbitration in government contracts</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Part II</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>reviewed the working
of </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>International Centre for Alternate Dispute Redressal(</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>ICADR). </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Declaring the ICADR
as an Institution of national importance</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Part III</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>‘</span><sp
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>International
Law Advisor</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>
(ILA)</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>recommended for the
creation of post of ‘International Law Advisor’ (ILA) </spa
/li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>to advise the
Government and coordinate dispute resolution strategy for the
Government in disputes arising out of its international law
obligations, particularly disputes arising out of BITs</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</ol>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:9.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="InternationalCentreForAlternativeDisputeResolution(ICADR)">International Centre For Alternative Dispute Resolution (ICADR)</h2>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Setup in 1995 as a
society under Societies Registration Act 1860 by Department of Legal
Affairs, Ministry of Law and Justice. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Autonomous<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>body </span></li
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>HQ: Delhi, Regional branches:
Hyderabad, Bangalore</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>The Minister for Law &amp; Justice is the</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> Chairman of ICADR</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Objective: For the promotion
and development of ADR facilities and techniques to facilitate early
resolution of disputes and to reduce the increasing burden of arrears in
Courts. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Criticism </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>It failed to account for the
latest developments in the field of arbitration such as provisions for
joinder of parties, consolidation of arbitral proceedings, emergency
arbitration, etc.</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="NewDelhiInternationalArbitrationCentre(NDIAC)Act2019">New Delhi International Arbitration Centre (NDIAC) Act 2019</h2>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Propose to constitute
New Delhi International Arbitration Centre </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>It </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>replaces</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'> International Centre
for Alternative Dispute Resolution (ICADR) </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Designates NDIAC </span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>as an Institution of
National Importance</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>It will </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>facilitate</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'> conducting of </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>international</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'> and </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>domestic
arbitration</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>,
</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt'>mediation</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt'> and </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:11.0pt'>conciliation</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:11.0pt'> proceedings in a most professional, cost effective and
timely manner</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Chairperson: who has
been a judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court or an </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>eminent
person</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>
having special knowledge and experience in the administration of
arbitration</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>NOTE: Chairman of ICADR
is Minister for Law &amp; Justice </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>