Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (OBCs)

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>Constitutional definition attained through <span style='font-weight:
bold'>102 CAA 2018</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>342A. (1) The President may with respect to any State or Union
territory, and where it is a State, after consultation with the Governor
thereof, by public notification, specify the <span style='font-weight:bold'>socially
and educationally backward classes</span> which shall for the purposes of this
Constitution be deemed to be socially and educationally backward classes in
relation to that State or Union territory, as the case may be. </p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>(2) <span style='font-weight:bold'>Parliament may by law include in
or exclude</span> from the <span style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Central List</span> of socially and educationally
backward classes specified in a notification issued under clause (1) any
socially and educationally backward class, but save as aforesaid a
notification issued under the said clause shall not be varied by any
subsequent notification</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Article 366(26C) Definition of Socially and Educationally Backward
classes</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>‘(26C) &quot;socially and educationally backward classes&q
ot;
means such backward classes as are so deemed under article 342A for the
purposes of this Constitution;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="CreamyLayer">Creamy Layer</h2>
<h2 style='color:#000000;margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;text-indent:-.1666in;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US id="SCdefinedcreamylayer[Constitutionallowedonlytomakespecialprovisionsforsocially&amp;educationallybackwardcitizens/ST/SC][Noteconomic]"<img
width=16 height=16
alt=Important src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>SC
defined creamy layer</span> [Constitution allowed only to make special
provisions for socially &amp; <span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>educationally</span> backward citizens/ST/SC][Not economic]</h2>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Children belong to creamy layer among OBCs and will not get quota
benefit</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Persons holding
constitutional posts like President, Vice President, Judges of SC &amp;
HC, Chairman and Members of UPSC, SPSC, CEC, CAG etc.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Group A/Class I &amp; Group
B/Class II officers of All India, Central, State services and employees
holding equivalent posts in PSUs, Banks, Insurance Organizations,
Universities etc. and </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>also in
private employment</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Persons who are in the rank
of colonel and above in the army and equivalent posts in the Navy, Air
Force and the Parliamentary forces </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Professionals</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> like doctors, lawyers,
engineers, artists, authors, consultants and so on</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Persons
engaged in trade, business and industry</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>People holding agricultural
land above a certain limit and vacant land or building in urban areas</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Persons
having gross annual income of more than 6 lakh or possessing wealth above
the exception limit</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='color:#000000;margin:0in;text-indent:-.1666in;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5' lang=en-US id="NationalCommissionfor Socially and Educationally
Backward Classes Constitutional Amendment Act 2018"<img
width=16 height=16
alt=Important src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;National Commission for Socially and <span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline'>Educationally</span>
Backward Classes Constitutional Amendment <span style='background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Act </span>2018</h2>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>102
Constitutional Amendment Act CAA 2018</span></li>
</ul>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>An accompanying bill, The
National Commission for Backward Classes Bill 2017, was also passed to </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>repeal the
1993 law</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Features of the bill</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Definition</span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> of socially and
educationally backward classes - Article </span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>366(26C)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Giving constitutional
status for socially and educationally backward classes - Article 342A, </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Parliament
to decide on inclusion/exclusion</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'> for Central list of OBCs </span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Under Article 342A the
President may specify the socially and educationally backward classes
in the various states and union territories. He may do this in c</span><span
style='text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>onsultation
with the Governor</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt'> of the concerned state. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>However,
a law of Parliament will be required if the list of backward classes is
to be amended. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Note:
Governor, President, Parliament has a role</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>National Commission for Backward Classes-
Article 338B</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Article 338 B - There shall be
a Commission for the socially and educationally backward classes to be
known as the National Commission for Backward Classes.</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</ul>