Reservations

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Quota<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>- SC -7.5%, ST 15%, OBC - 27%, E
WS 10%</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Reservations is not a right.
Provisions in the constitution relating to reservations are enabling
provisions but not rights. SC in Feb 2020</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Vertical reservation is
social reservation provided to reserved castes like SC/ST, OBC etc
whereas horizontal reservations are reservation within reservation like
reservation to female, ex-service man, persons with disabilities<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>etc.</span></li
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Constitution makes
provisions for special treatment of socially and </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>educationally</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt'> backward citizens/ST/SC which would not come under Equality </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Reservation even in private
educational institutions except minority educational institutions [Under
Article 15]</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Reservations provided in
state services in favour of backward classes if not adequately
represented [Under Article 16]</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="SourceofReservationsinConstitution">Source of Reservations in Constitution</h2>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<div style='direction:ltr'>
<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt;margin-left:.3333in' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Source</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Reservation for class?</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Where</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.6006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
15(4) &amp; 15(5)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SCs
and STs </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7777in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Educational
Institutions </p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
16(4)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8201in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SCs
and STs (ground -backward classes not adequately represented)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7333in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Public
Employment </p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
330<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></p
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SCs
and STs</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Lok
Sabha</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
332 </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SCs
and STs</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7333in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State
assemblies</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;color:black'
lang=en-US>Article 243D</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SCs
and STs</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Panchayats</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;color:black'
lang=en-US>Article 243T</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SCs
and STs</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;color:black'
lang=en-US>Municipalities </p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
243ZJ</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SCs
and STs</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Cooperatives
</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.6006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
15(4) &amp; 15(5)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>OBCs
(ground -socially and educationally backward classes)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7777in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Educational
Institutions </p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
16(4)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>OBCs
(ground -backward classes not adequately represented)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7333in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Public
Employment </p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
15(6)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>EWS</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7548in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Educational
Institutions</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
16(6)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>EWS</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7333in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Public
Employment </p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
331</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Anglo
Indians (Not valid beyond 2020)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Lok
Sabha</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
333</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Anglo
Indians (Not valid beyond 2020)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7333in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State
assemblies</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
15(3)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Women
and Children</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8375in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Educational
and other</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;color:black'
lang=en-US>Article 243D</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Women</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Panchayats</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;color:black'
lang=en-US>Article 243T</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SCs
and STs</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;color:black'
lang=en-US>Municipalities </p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5812in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
243ZJ</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SCs
and STs</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Cooperatives
</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Quota<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>- SC -7.5%, S
T 15%,
OBC - 27%, EWS 10%</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>NOTE: Article 15(3) explicitly provides special provision <span
style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>for women and
children</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Educationalinstitutionsandothersifany(genericprovision)">Educational institutions and <span style='text-decoration:underline'>others
if any (generic provision)</span></h3>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Source is Article 15(4) and Article 15(5),
15(6)(a), 15(6)(b)</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Article 15(4) is
present since original constitution<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
</span>while Article 15(5) was added by 93rd CAA of 2005</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Article 15(1) says
that &quot;The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on
grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of
them&quot;. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Article 15(4) says
that &quot;Nothing in this article or in clause ( 2 ) of Article 29
shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the
advancement of any </span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>socially</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> and </span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>educationally</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> backward classes of citizens </span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;background:fuchsia;
mso-highlight:fuchsia'>or</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled
Tribes&quot;</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Article 15(5) says
that &quot;Nothing in this article or in sub-clause (g) of clause (1) of
article 19 shall prevent the State from making any special provision, by
law, for the advancement of any </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>socially and educationally</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> backward classes of
citizens </span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;
background:fuchsia;mso-highlight:fuchsia'>or</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> for the Scheduled
Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in so far as such special provisions
relate to their </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>admission to educational institutions including
private educational institutions</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>, whether aided or unaided by the State, other than
the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of
article 30&quot;</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Article 15(6) Nothing
in this article or sub-clause (g) of clause (1) of article 19 or clause
(2) of article 29 shall prevent the State from making,</span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>(a) </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>any</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> special provision
for the </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>advancement of any economically weaker sections of
citizens</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>
other than the classes mentioned in clauses (4) and (5); and </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>(b) any special
provision for the advancement of </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>any economically weaker
sections of citizens</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> other than the classes mentioned in clauses (4) and
(5) in so far as such special provisions relate to their admission to
educational institutions including private educational institutions,
whether aided or unaided by the State, other than the minority
educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of article 30, which
in the case of reservation would be in addition to the existing
reservations and subject to a</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> maximum of ten per cent</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> of the total seats
in each category.</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='color:#000000;margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;text-indent:-.1666in;
font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><img
width=16 height=16
alt=Referenced>&nbsp;Article 15(1) says not to discriminate. However Article
15(3), 15(4 &amp; 5) , 15(6)<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>ar
exception which means that State can discriminate/make special provisions for
advancement of </p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:1.125in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Women and Children </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Any socially and
educationally backward classes of citizens</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>OR Scheduled Castes</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>OR Scheduled Tribes</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>OR Economically Weaker
Sections </span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Accordingly, </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>Central Educational Institutions(Reservation in
Admission) Act, 2006</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> provides a quota of 27 percent for candidates
belonging to Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in all Central Higher
Educational institutions. SC directed while upholding this reservation to
exclude Creamy layer (advanced sections) among OBCs while implementing
the law</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Publicemployment">Public employment</h3>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Source is 16(4), 16(6)</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>(1) There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in
matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste,
sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or
discriminated against in respect or, any employment or office under the State</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making
any law prescribing, in regard to a class or classes of employment or
appointment to an office under the Government of, or any local or other
authority within, a State or Union territory, any requirement as to <span
style='font-weight:bold'>residence</span> within that State or Union territory
prior to such employment or appointment</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>(4) <span style='font-weight:bold'>Nothing in this article shall
prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of
appointments or posts in favor of any </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>backward</span><span style='font-weight:
bold'> class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately
represented in the services under the State</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>(5) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any law
which provides that the incumbent of an office in connection with the affairs
of any religious or denominational institution or any member of the governing
body thereof shall be a person professing a <span style='font-weight:bold'>particular
religion</span> or belonging to a particular denomination</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>(6) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any
provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any<span
style='font-weight:bold'> economically weaker sections of citizen</span>s
other than the classes mentioned in clause (4), in addition to the existing
reservation and subject to a <span style='font-weight:bold'>maximum of ten per
cent</span> of the posts in each category.</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="LokSabhaandStateLegislature">Lok Sabha and State Legislature </h3>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<div style='direction:ltr'>
<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt;margin-left:.3333in' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0444in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Article 330</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.0798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>reservation
of seats to SC and STs in Lok Sabha</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0444in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
332 </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.0798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in' lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Verdana;
font-size:11.0pt'>reservation of seats to SC and STs </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>in State legislative assemblies
</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.025in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
331</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.0993in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>reservation for Anglo-Indians in Lok
Sabha
(Not valid beyond 2020)</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.025in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
333</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.1687in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>reservation for Anglo-Indians in Sta
te
assemblies (Not valid beyond 2020)</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Original constitutions says reservations for SC and STs are for 10
years but later regularly amended to extend for further 10 years. Now valid
until 2030 [Article 334]</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt;color:black' lang=en-US><span style='font-weight:bold'>Article 335
provides that the claims of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the
Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the
maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the making of appointments to
services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State.</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt;color:black' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="PanchayatsandMunicipalities">Panchayats and Municipalities </h3>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Article
243D - Reservation of SC, ST in panchayats</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Article
243T - Reservation of SC, ST in Municipalities </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Article 243ZJ -
Reservation of SC, ST in Cooperatives </span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</ul>