Part 3,4,4A - FR DPSP FD

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Rights-Types">Rights - Types</h2>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt;margin-left:.3333in' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1902in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Civil
rights</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5666in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Ex:
Freedom of speech</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1902in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Political
rights</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.4972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Ex:
Right to vote</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1902in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Social
rights</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.4972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Ex:
Right to health</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.2097in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Economic
rights</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.4777in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Ex:
Right to property</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="FundamentalRightsFR">Fundamental Rights FR</h2>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>FR are </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>not</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>
sacrosanct (they may be curtailed)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>FR are not permanent (they
are amenable)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>They are not exclusive rights
provided by constitution.</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>There are rights which are
outside Part III in Constitution </span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Article 265<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>- No tax without Law</span></li
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Article 300A<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>- Property rights</span></li
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Article 326 - Elections
based on adult suffrage</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</ul>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Significance of FR</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>They check the absoluteness
of the authority of Govt</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Establishes rule of law</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Strengthens secular fabric
and protect the minorities against majoritarianism </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="DirectivePrinciplesofStatePolicyDPSP">Directive Principles of State Policy DPSP</h2>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Instrument of Instructions to
</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Legislature
and Executive (Not to Judiciary</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>, but helps judiciary in determining the constitutional
validity of any law)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>Fundamental to governance of country</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Strive for</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Social, economic and
political programme</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Realise Justice, Liberty,
Equality and Fraternity </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Concept of welfare state</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Moral obligation </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Beacon lights to the courts </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Amplify the preamble </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Common Political Manifesto </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>FR and DPSP are soul/conscience of constitution </span></p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Fundamental rights provide civil and political rights
to people while DPSP provides social and economic rights</span></p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;
color:#2E75B5' lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="FundamentalDutiesFD">Fundamental Duties FD</h2>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Both civic duties and moral
duties</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Tit-bits">Tit-bits</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>(Remember the rights below, as they will be asked directly in
Prelims)</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="SomeFundamentalrights">Some Fundamental rights </h3>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Right to legal aid is a FR
under Article 21</span></li>
</ul>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle;color:black'
lang=en-US><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Right to internet is
fundamental right under<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Arti
cle 19</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Freedom of speech and
expression through the medium of internet<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
</span>- Art 19(1)(a)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Freedom of trade and
commerce through internet - Art 19(1)(g)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>FR under
some restrictions; Doctrine of Proportionality </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Jan 2020:
SC ruled Right to Internet is fundamental right</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Kerala HC
also ruled that Right to internet is a FR under Right to Privacy which is
under </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Art 21</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Right to form political party
is a fundamental right under Article 19(3)</span></li>
</ul>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Right to
Privacy is Fundamental Right under Article </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>21</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>[Though not an absolute right; Pu
tt
Swamy Judgement]</span></li>
</ul>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Right to marriage is FR under
article 21</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Right to internet is FR under
Article 19</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Someconstitutionalrights">Some constitutional rights</h3>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Right to contest an election
is a constitutional right. Right to contest an election to Panchayat is a
constitutional right</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Right to vote is a
Constitutional right [Official Answer Key of UPSC 2017][Article 326]</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Right to
property is a constitutional right under Article 300A</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> (Official answer key of
UPSC. )</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Article 300A, which provides
for Right to Property, required the state to follow due procedure and
authority of law to deprive a person of his or her private property.
Hence as provided in the constitution, it is called constitutional right </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Notrights">Not rights</h3>

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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Reservations is not a right.</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'> Provisions in the constitution relating to reservations
are </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt'>enabling provisions but not rights</span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>. SC in Feb 2020</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Right to strike does not
comes under Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>No
ex-post-facto law - only in case of criminal proceedings but not for civil
laws or tax laws</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>No double
jeopardy - only in case of judicial proceedings in court of law or a
judicial tribunal</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> but not for
administrative and departmental proceedings since they are not of judicial
nature</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>No
Self-incrimination (no compelling to be self-witness) for criminal cases.
May be compelled for non-criminal cases</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Tribal people can reside
anywhere in the country but outsiders cannot reside in tribal areas.
Freedom of movement to any part of country is constrained</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Preventive detention is in Concurrent List.
However Parliament has exclusive authority of preventive detention laws on
subjects like defence, foreign affairs and security of India</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Prevention detention is applicable only to Criminal and Quasi
Criminal Cases but not civil cases</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Protection against arrest is applicable only to Criminal and Quasi
Criminal Cases but not for civil cases </span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Implies that a<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>pers
on can
be arrested and need not be produced in court even more than 24
hours<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>for civil cases</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Not applicable to enemy alien implies that he can be arrested
whatsoever</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt;color:black'>Under Article 13 Definition of law, </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;color:black;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Constitutional Amendment Acts CAA
are not included</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;
color:black'> which implies that CAA are not challengeable in the court.
However in the Kesavananda Bharti Case, CAA can be challenged if it amends
basic structure of constitution in which FR is a part of it.</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;color:black'>So when a
Question comes whether the CAA are included in the Article 13. We should
answer it is </span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;
color:black;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>NOT</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Constitutional amendment acts
and judicial orders will not come under the definition of law under
Article 13. However, they are subjected to judicial review</span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Important src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt;color:black;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>In India,
Constitution is the source of individual rights</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Right to move to SC/HC for constitutional
remedies<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>for enforcement of
FR can
be taken away/suspended during National Emergency or by the Parliamentary
law under Article 33 martial courts or by the constitution as specified</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Important src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt;color:black'>Article 14 </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;color:black'>forbids class
legislation</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;
color:black'> but </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt;color:black'>permits reasonable classification</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;color:black'> of persons,
objects and transactions </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;color:black;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>by
law</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Under Article 16, State
cannot discriminate on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of
birth, </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>descent and
residence</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> (Under
Article 15, descent and residence not mentioned)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Article 33</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Restriction of FR w.r.t
members of armed forces, para military,</span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> police, intelligence and
analogous forces</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Only parliament is empowered
to legislate on this subject but not by State legislatures</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Members of armed forces </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>include</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> barbers, carpenters, cooks,
tailors who are </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>non combatants </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Fundamentalrightsw.r.tNationalEmergency">Fundamental rights w.r.t National Emergency</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Article 20, 21 can never be
suspended in any case</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>In case of National
emergency, only Article 19 is </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>automatically suspended </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>only in case of war or
external aggression. Article 19 is not automatically suspended in case of
armed rebellion</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>In case of National
emergency, beside the automatic suspension of Article 19 in case of war or
external aggression, President can declare the specific suspension of FR
under Article 35 except 20,21<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
</span>(those rights will be mentioned in the Presidential Order for
suspension )</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Even article 32 can be suspended manually during emergency</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt;margin-left:.3333in' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0152in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.8451in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>under</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4263in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>War/External
aggression</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.1465in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Armed
rebellion</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0347in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
20, 21</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.8451in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>-</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4263in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-GB>No
suspension</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.127in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>No
Suspension</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0152in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
19</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.8645in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
358</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4263in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-GB>Auto
suspension </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.3618in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>President
Manual Suspension of enforcement (parliament approval)</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0152in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Other
FRs</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.8645in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
359</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4451in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>President
Manual Suspension of enforcement (parliament approval)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.3618in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>President
Manual Suspension of enforcement (parliament approval)</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.75in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>President Manual Suspension
of enforcement means </span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>the</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'> rights are </span><span style='text-decoration:underline;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>present</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> as such but their enforcement is
not guaranteed i.e. remedies does not exist </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Specific rights and for specific/
all
period and specific area/across country</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Only laws/executive action
which are related to emergency are protected from being challenged</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="FundamentalRightsw.r.tForeigners">Fundamental Rights w.r.t Foreigners</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Except
the Fundamental Rights under the articles<span style='font-weight:bold'> 15,
16, </span><span style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline'>19</span><span
style='font-weight:bold'>, 29 and 30</span> all the Fundamental Rights are
available to both citizens and foreign nationals</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>15 - Can
discriminate for example in voting rights</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>16 - Can
give more opportunities for citizens</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>19-
freedom of speech</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>29
-Protection of interests of minorities.</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>30 -
Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Note: </p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Article 22 - Protection
against arrest and detention is not available to enemy aliens.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Cultural and Educational
rights not available to foreigners while Religious freedom available </span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt;margin-left:.3333in' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Protection
against State/Private</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Beneficiaries-
Foreign/Citizen</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>14
Equality before law and equal protection under law.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.4048in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Foreigners and Citizens (<span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>legal
persons also</span>)</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>15
Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or
place of birth.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Provision
A- State</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Provision
B- State &amp; P Individual</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Can discriminate foreigners</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>16
Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Can discriminate foreigners</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>17
Abolition of Untouchability.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
State and Private Individual</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Foreigners and Citizens</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>18
Abolition of titles.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Private
Individual</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Foreigners and Citizens</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8069in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>19
Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech &amp; expression,
associate, assemble, movement, residence and profession</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.3715in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Citizens
and <span style='font-weight:bold'>shareholders </span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>But </span><span style='font-weight:bold;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>not to foreigners, </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>other legal persons</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>20
Protection in respect of conviction for offences.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
citizens, foreigners, legal persons</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>21
Protection of life and personal liberty.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Foreigners and Citizens</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>21A
Right to Elementary Education</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Both Foreigners and Citizens</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>22
Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3159in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State
(protection only against criminal and quasi criminal cases)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.509in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri' lang=en-US><span style='font-size:
11.0pt'>Ordinary law-</span><span style='font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'> Not available to </span><span style='text-decoration:
underline;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>enemy</span><span
style='font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> alien</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Preventive
detention law- Both citizens and foreigners</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>23
Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State
and private individual</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Foreigners and Citizens</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>24
Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State
and private individual</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Foreigners and Citizens</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>25
Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of
religion.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State
and private individual</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Foreigners and Citizens</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>26
Freedom to manage religious affairs.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Foreigners and Citizens</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>27
Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Foreigners and Citizens</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>28
Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in
certain educational institutions.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Foreigners and Citizens</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>29
Protection of interests of minorities. (religious as well as linguistic)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State
[Applicable to minorities and majority as well]</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;background:aqua;mso-highlight:aqua'>Not Applicable to
Foreigners</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8208in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>30
Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
(religious as well as linguistic)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.3576in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;background:aqua;mso-highlight:aqua'>Not Applicable to
Foreigners</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>32
Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>State</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.377in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Foreigners and Citizens</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Fundamentalrightsandexceptionstoit">Fundamental rights and exceptions to it</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-style:italic'>Right</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-style:italic'>Exception grounds</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>14
Equality before law and equal protection under law.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Refer
below</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4145in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>15
Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or
place of birth.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.518in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2215in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Doctrine of
reasonableness, proportionality, reasonable classification<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></li
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Women and Children 15(3)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>OR Any socially and
educationally backward classes of citizens</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>OR Scheduled Castes </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>OR Scheduled Tribes </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>OR Economically Weaker
Sections </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>In some cases, giving
effect to DPSP</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4145in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>16
Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.518in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2298in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Doctrine of
reasonableness, proportionality </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Residence as a condition
for employment- 16(3)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR Backward classes if not
adequately represented - 16(4)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR Religious person to
religious denominations - 16(5)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR Economically Weaker
Sections - 16(6)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>In some cases, giving
effect to DPSP</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>17
Abolition of Untouchability.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>-</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>18
Abolition of titles.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>military or academic distinction</p
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>19
Protection of certain rights regarding </p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>freedom of speech
&amp;
expression,</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>associate, </p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>assemble, </p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>movement, </p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>residence and </p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>profession</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.5722in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<div style='direction:ltr'>
<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5458in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>freedom
of speech &amp; expression,</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8437in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>Reasonable restrictions</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> in the interests of the
sovereignty and integrity of India, </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>the
security of the State, </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>friendly
relations with foreign States, </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>public
order, </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>decency or morality or </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>in relation to contempt of court, defamation or </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>incitement to an offence</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5256in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>assemble</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8638in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>sovereignty
and integrity of India or </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>public
order, </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>reasonable
restrictions </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5256in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>associate</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8638in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>sovereignty
and integrity of India or </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>public
order or </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>morality,
</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>reasonable
restrictions </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.6041in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>movement</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.7861in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>reasonable
restrictions in the interests of the general public or<span
style='font-weight:bold'> for the protection of the interests of any
Scheduled Tribe</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.6041in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>residence</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.7861in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>reasonable
restrictions in the interests of the general public or<span
style='font-weight:bold'> for the protection of the interests of any
Scheduled Tribe</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.5256in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Profession</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8638in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Professional
or technical qualification </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>State
owned entities </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Reasonable
restrictions</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>20
Protection in respect of conviction for offences.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<div style='direction:ltr'>
<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.2833in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Ex-post
facto law</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.7756in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Civil
cases, tax laws; Criminal offence trails</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.2687in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Double
jeopardy</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.7902in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Administrative/Departmental
proceedings</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.2833in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Self
incrimination</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.7062in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Civil
cases</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>21
Protection of life and personal liberty.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>21A
Right to Elementary Education</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4145in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>22
Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.518in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Enemy alien</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Preventive detention </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4145in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>23
Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.518in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Compulsory service for
public purpose </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>24
Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>-</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4145in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>25
Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of
religion.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.518in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>public order, </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>morality</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> and </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>health</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>regulating or restricting
any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may
be associated with religious practice;</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>providing for social welfare and reform </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4145in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>26
Freedom to manage religious affairs.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.518in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>public order, </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>morality</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> and </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>health</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4145in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>27
Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.518in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Fee </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>28
Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in
certain educational institutions.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>29
Protection of interests of minorities/any citizen. (religious as well as
linguistic)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>-</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>30
Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
(religious as well as linguistic)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>-</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4923in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>32
Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>National
emergency/Martial law</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="RighttoEqualityviolation">Right to Equality violation</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>Provisions 14-18</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>14 Equality before law and equal protection of law</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race,
caste, sex or place of birth.</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>17 Abolition of Untouchability.</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>18 Abolition of titles.</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>However,<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>there are exceptions to right to equal
ity and
reasonable classification (intelligible differentia) can be made by law. </p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>(class legislation is prohibited)</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Provisions giving effect to
DPSP</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>FR enjoys supremacy over DPSP.</span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> However </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>for implementation of DPSP, FR can
be amended without altering the basic structure</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> of constitution. [Specific
DPSP 39b and 39c supreme over FR 14,19 still valid]. </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Reservations for SC, ST,
socially and educationally backward classes and economically weaker
sections </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>These excepts are valid and
are included in the constitution itself</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Doctrine of Reasonableness
(Reasonable classification)</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Classification must be based
on intelligible differentia which distinguishes persons or things that
are grouped together from those that are left out of group and the
differentia must have a </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>rational nexus to the objects</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> sought to be achieved by
the executive or legislative action under challenge</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Doctrine of Proportionality
(proportionate equality) &nbsp;and&nbsp;substantive&nbsp;equality</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>State restrictions vs
Fundamental rights </span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Ex: Banning internet in
Kashmir after revocation of Article 370 is against Right to Freedom </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Freedom of speech vs Law
&amp; order</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:1.125in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Article 15 says not to
discriminate in general and educational institutions . However Article
15(3), 15(4 &amp; 5) , 15(6)<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span
>are
exception which means that State can discriminate/make special provisions
for advancement of </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Women and Children </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR Any socially and
educationally backward classes of citizens</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR Scheduled Castes</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR Scheduled Tribes</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR Economically Weaker
Sections </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Article 16 says not to
discriminate in matters of public employment . However there are exception
which means that State can discriminate/make special provisions </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Residence as a condition for
employment- 16(3)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR Backward classes if not
adequately represented - 16(4)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR Religious person to
religious denominations - 16(5)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR Economically Weaker
Sections - 16(6)</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Conflictsb/wFundamentalRightsFRandDPSP">Conflicts b/w Fundamental Rights FR and DPSP </h2>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Fundamental Rights FR</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Directive Principles of State Policy DPSP</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Constitutional Amendment Acts CAA</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>One of the conflict case was right to property</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8104in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Original
Constitution</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:9.1222in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>No
conflict foreseen</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7326in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1951
Champakam Dorairajan Case</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:9.2in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2125in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>SC ruled that incase of
any conflict b/w FR and DPSP, FR would prevail</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>DPSP should conform and
act as subsidiary to FR</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>To resolve conflicts, FR
could be amended by CAA<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>f
or
implementing DPSP</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8104in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Accordingly
Parliament</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:9.1222in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Accordingly,
1st CAA 1951, 4rth CAA 1955 , 7th CAA 1964 enacted to implement some DPSP</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7326in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1967
Golaknath case</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:9.2in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2125in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Parliament cannot abridge
or taken away the FR which are sacrosanct</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>FR cannot be amended for
implementation of DPSP</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8104in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Parliament
counter</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:9.1222in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>24rth
CAA 1971</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Parliament has power to
amend FR by CAA's</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>25th
CAA 1971 - Inserted Article 31C</p>
<ol type=1 style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
font-weight:normal;font-style:normal'>
<li value=1 style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;font-weight:
normal;font-style:normal;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Provision
1- No law which seeks to implement DPSP 39b and 39c shall be void on the
ground of FR 14,19,31</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Provision 2 -No law related
to this cannot be questioned in any court</span></li>
</ol>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Summary:
Specific DPSP supremacy over specific FR and made Judiciary unreviewable</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7326in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>1973 Kesavananda Bharati Case</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:9.2in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2125in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Judicial
review basic structure of Constitution. Hence Provision 2 of 31C
invalid</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Provision
1 of 31 C is valid and constitutional</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7326in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1976
42nd CAA</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:9.2in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2125in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>All DPSP supremacy over
specific FR 14,19,31</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7326in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1978
44rth CAA</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:9.2in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2125in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>FR 31 is repealed</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8298in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1980
Minerva Mills case </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:9.1027in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.327in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Specific DPSP 39b and 39c
supreme over FR 14,19</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Stated
that DPSP and FR are two wheels of a chariot and both are equally
important and needs balance</span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow;margin-top:
0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><img
width=16 height=16
alt="Test Revision">&nbsp;<span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Harmony and Balance b/w FR and DPSP is
essential feature of basic structure of constitution </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>DPSP should be implemented
without abrogation of means of FR</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.7847in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Now</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:9.1479in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.1923in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<p style='color:#000000;margin:0in;text-indent:-.1666in;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><img
width=16 height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>FR enjoys supremacy over
DPSP.</span> However <span style='font-weight:bold'>for implementation of
DPSP, FR can be amended without altering the basic structure</span> of
constitution. [Specific DPSP 39b and 39c supreme over FR 14,19 still valid].
</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Order
of preference - FR except 14 and 19. -&gt; DPSP 39(b) and 39(c). -&gt; FR 14
and 19. -&gt; DPSP except 39(b) and 39(c).</p>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:13pt;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:13pt;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
color:#14354D' lang=en-US><span style='font-weight:bold'>What is Article 39(b)?</span></p>

<p style='margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:18pt;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
color:#333333' lang=en-US>The State shall, in particular, direct its policy
towards securing: that the<span style='font-weight:bold'> ownership and control
of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to
subserve the common good.</span></p>

<p style='margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:13pt;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
color:#14354D' lang=en-US><span style='font-weight:bold'>What is Article 39(c)?</span></p>

<p style='margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:18pt;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
color:#333333' lang=en-US>The State shall, in particular, direct its policy
towards securing: that the <span style='font-weight:bold'>operation of the
economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of
production to the common detriment</span></p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>31C -
Saving of laws giving effect to certain DPSP</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="InternationalCovenantonCivilandPoliticalRightsICCPR">International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICCPR</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Multilateral treaty by UN.
India is a member to it</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The covenant commits its parties t
o </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>respect the civil and political rights of
individuals</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>,
including the </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech,
freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair
trial.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Parties of this covenant
should Legally protect persons </span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>against
“arbitrary interference”</span><span style='font-family:Cali
font-size:12.0pt'> with one’s privacy, family, home, correspondenc
honour and reputation. </span></li>
</ul>