Part 20 - Amendment of Constitution

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Article 368 of the
Constitution deals with amendment of constitution and parliaments power
to amend.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Article 368 states that the
Parliament may, in exercise of its constituent power, amend by way of
addition, variation or repeal of any provision of the Constitution in
accordance with the procedure laid down for the purpose</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>However, Parliament cannot
amend the provisions that form the &quot;basic structure of
constitution&quot;</span></li>
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lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="BasicStructureofConstitution">Basic Structure of Constitution</h2>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Supreme court (</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>1973 Kesavananda Bharati
Case) brought out the Doctrine of Basic structure of constitution which
implies that anything of constitution can be amended but without
affecting the basic structure of constitution</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>However SC/Parliament yet to
clarify what constitutes the basic structure of constitution</span></li>
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<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Evolution">Evolution</h3>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1951
Shankari Prasad Case</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Power
of Parliament to amend constitution includes the power to amend Fundamental
rights</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1967
Golaknath Case</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Reversed
above case. CAA cannot take away fundamental rights as it is also a law
under Art. 13</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1971
24th CAA </p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Under
368, Parliament has power to take away fundamental rights and such acts will
not be under Art. 13</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1973
Kesavananda Bharati Case</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Doctrine
of Basic Structure of constitution which is the present position</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1976
42nd CAA</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>No
limitation of CAA and no amendment can be questioned on ground of
contravention of Fundamental Rights</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1980
Minerva Mills Case</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SC
invalidated the provision of absolute power of 42nd CAA</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1981
Waman Rao Case</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Adhered
to doctrine of Basic Structure of Constitution</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="WhatconstitutesbasicstructureofConstitution">What constitutes basic structure of Constitution</h3>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It is an evolving concept
and it is not defined in the constitution</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Several judgements of
several cases lists basic structure of constitution (the below might not
be complete list)</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Sovereignty</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Secularism and freedom of
religion</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Democracy(free and fair
elections)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Republic</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Justice – social,
conomic
and political</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Liberty of thought,
expression, belief, faith and worship</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Equality of status and
opportunity</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Unity and Integrity</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Parliamentary
system</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Supremacy of the
Constitution</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Separation
of powers between the legislature, executive and the judiciary</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Independent Judiciary</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Federal character</span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;background:#00CCFF;mso-highlight:#00CCFF;
margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><img
width=16
height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Welfare
state</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Essential</span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> features of individual
freedom</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Power of<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Judicial review</span></li
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Rule of law</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Harmony and balance between
Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Limited power of Parliament
to amend the constitution </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Principle of Reasonableness </span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img
width=16 height=16 alt=Important src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Special leave
petition (136)</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>,
141, 142 of SC</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Powers of High court under
Article 226</span></li>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='color:#000000;margin:0in;text-indent:-.1666in;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><img
width=16 height=16
alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>NOTE: </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Socialist</span><span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> is not a basic structure</span></p>
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