Part 18 - Emergency provisions

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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Type</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Notified
by</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Parliament
Approval required</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Within
how much time, parliament approval</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>In
operation=</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Revoked
by</p>
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background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:1.625in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>w.r.t
J&amp;K</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>National Emergency</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>352</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>(Ext
War, Arm reb)</p>
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<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.9666in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Written
by Cabinet</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Yes</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.8111in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1 month
by special majority and absolute total majority</p>
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<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9986in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>6
months renew at a time [<span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>by
special majority</span>]</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Entire
country/only part of it</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.2402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President
or <span style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Lok</span><span
style='font-weight:bold'> Sabha</span>(<span style='background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>simple</span>)</p>
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<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.025in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>External
War/Aggression - President notifies</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Internal
Disturbance -<span style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>President can impose only with approval of state</span></p>
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<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.9875in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>President Rule</span> 356</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>(Under
356/365)</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:.9534in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President</p>
</td>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.2041in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Yes</p>
</td>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.8111in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>2
months by simple majority </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9986in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>6
months renew, upto 1 year. Later either EC recommend or under National
emergency. Max upto 3 years</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.2402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.025in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Governor
Rule </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>On grounds of J&amp;K constitutional machinery</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Notified by President</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Both President Rule and Governor rule</span></p>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.0in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Financial Emergency</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>360</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:.9534in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President</p>
</td>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.2041in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Yes</p>
</td>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.8111in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>2
months by simple majority</p>
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<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9986in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>indefinite</span></p>
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vertical-align:top;width:1.2402in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8673in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Cannot be imposed</span></p>
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<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Article 352- Emergency word
mentioned but National Emergency is not mentioned </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Article 356 -Emergency word
is not mentioned. It is Presidents Rule </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Article 360 - Financial
Emergency word mentioned in Constitution </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Article 355
still has the word internal disturbance</span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> - It is the duty of the Union to protect the
States against external aggression or</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> internal
disturbances </span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>All</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> 3 types of emergencies
proclamation are </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>subjected to
Judicial review</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>If LS is dissolved when any
time of emergency , </span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>proclamation valid until 30
days from the date of its reconstitution provided that RS approved it</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Laws made by Parliament on
State subjects during National Emergency will expire after 6 months of
revocation of National Emergency. However, laws made by Parliament during
Presidents rule in a State will never expire unless explicitly revoked</span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img
width=16 height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>During National Emergency, life of Lok Sabha may be
extended one year at a time </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>by the law of Parliament</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>. </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Also State legislature's life can also be extended one year at a
time by the law of Parliament.</span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img
width=16 height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>If emergency is
proclaimed to limited area, even then the Centres legislative and
executive power over all subjects extended to entire country</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>In Presidents Rule, either
State legislature can be dissolved/suspended. </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Can be
dissolved only after the Parliament approval</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>During Presidents Rule,
Parliament can delegate the power to make laws w.r.t State to President or
any authority [Presidents Acts]</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>National emergency was
declared during Indira Gandhi's regime 1975-77 and also during war with
China 1962-68, in 1971-75 during war Pakistan<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Fundamentalrightsw.r.tNationalEmergency">Fundamental rights w.r.t National Emergency</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Article 20, 21 can never be
suspended in any case</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>In case of National
emergency, only Article 19 is </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>automatically suspended </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>only in case of war or
external aggression. Article 19 is not automatically suspended in case of
armed rebellion</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>In case of National
emergency, beside the automatic suspension of Article 19 in case of war or
external aggression, President can declare the specific suspension of FR
under Article 35 except 20,21<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
</span>(those rights will be mentioned in the Presidential Order for
suspension )</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Even article 32 can be suspended manually during emergency</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt;margin-left:.3333in' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:1.0152in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:.8451in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>under</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:4.4263in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>War/External
aggression</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:4.1465in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Armed
rebellion</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0347in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
20, 21</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.8451in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>-</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4263in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-GB>No
suspension</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.127in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>No
Suspension</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0152in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
19</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.8645in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
358</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4263in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-GB>Auto
suspension </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.3618in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>President
Manual Suspension of enforcement (parliament approval)</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0152in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Other
FRs</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.8645in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Article
359</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4451in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>President
Manual Suspension of enforcement (parliament approval)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.3618in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>President
Manual Suspension of enforcement (parliament approval)</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.75in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>President Manual Suspension
of enforcement means </span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>the</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'> rights are </span><span style='text-decoration:underline;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>present</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> as such but their enforcement is
not guaranteed i.e. remedies does not exist </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Specific rights and for specific/
all
period and specific area/across country</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Only laws/executive action
which are related to emergency are protected from being challenged</span></li>
</ul>

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