Part 15 - Elections

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Tit-bits">Tit-bits</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Part 15. Elections - Articles
324-329</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Overview">Overview</h3>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:1.1513in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Constitutional
Office</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:2.4458in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Election</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:.902in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Appointed
By</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:1.1187in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Tenure
and security</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:.959in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Removed
By</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:1.0194in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Election
disputes</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:2.2645in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Removal
Process</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:.5375in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1319in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.4458in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Only
Elected members of Parliament and State assemblies</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.8833in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>CJI</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1187in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>5 years</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.9784in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Parliament</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0194in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SC</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2645in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Both <span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Nominated</span> and elected
members of Parliament</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.6986in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Secret
ballot</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1319in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Vice
President</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.4458in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Both
Elected and nominated members of Parliament</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.8833in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1187in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>5 years</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.9784in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Parliament</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0194in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SC</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2645in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Absolute
majority of RS and then LS</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.6986in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Secret
ballot</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1319in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>LS
Members</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.4458in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Direct
election</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.8833in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1187in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.959in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0194in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>President</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Speaker</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2645in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.6986in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>EVM</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1319in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>RS
Members</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.4458in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Indirect.
Elected by the MLAs </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.8833in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1187in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>6 years</p
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.959in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.0194in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>President</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Speaker</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2645in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:.6986in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Open
ballot</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Whoconductselections">Who conducts elections</h3>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt;margin-left:.3333in' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:4.4861in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Elections
for</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:2.193in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Conducted
by</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.5055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President,
Vice President, LS, RS, State Assembly, State Council </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.1736in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Central
Election Commission</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4861in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Panchayats,
Municipalities</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.193in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>State
Election Commission</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.4861in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Cooperatives</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.2625in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>State
legislature will determine</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>State Election Commissions
are independent of Central Election Commission/Election Commission of
India</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>No clear cut provision
regarding the submission of reports by </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>State Election Commission</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>So if in a Question says
SEC submits report to Central Election Commission/President, it is wrong</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Whoresolveselectiondisputes">Who resolves election disputes</h3>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt;margin-left:.3333in' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:2.0673in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Election
disputes of</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:6.5875in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Resolved
by</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.0673in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President,
Vice president</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.5875in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Supreme
court</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.0673in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>LS RS </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.6569in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Disqualification
on basis of Constitution and RP Act 1951 - President on recommendation of CEC</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Disqualification
on basis of Anti defection law - Presiding officer of LS, RS</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Election disputes related to </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline'>Members of Parliament</span><span
style='font-weight:bold'> and state legislature by High Court</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.0868in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>State
Assembly and Council</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.6375in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Disqualification
on basis of Constitution and RP Act 1951 - Governor on recommendation of CEC</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Disqualification
on basis of Anti defection law - Presiding officer of Assembly, Council</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Election disputes related to </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline'>Members of Parliament</span><span
style='font-weight:bold'> and state legislature by High Court</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.0673in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>panchayats,
municipalities</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.5875in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>State
legislature will determine</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.0673in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Cooperatives</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.5875in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>State
legislature will determine</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Election
petitions</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> are
trailable only by High Court. Appeals to SC. Election petitions are not
ordinary civil suit but treated as a contest in which whole constituency
is involved. While, appeals against orders of Electoral Registration
Officers can be done in District Magistrate or ADM. Further appeal lies to
Chief Electoral Officer </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Election Petitions for
elections to LS/State assemblies</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Any </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:fuchsia;
mso-highlight:fuchsia'>Elector</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>/Candidate can file election petitions</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Election Petitions are tried by respective </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>High Courts</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>If upheld, can even lead to
restaging of election in that constituency</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>It is not an ordinary civil
suit and it is treated as a contest in which whole constituency is
involved</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Electionofficers">Election officers</h3>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt;margin-left:.3333in' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:1.6034in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Officer</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:1.1562in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Represent</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:3.1256in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Appointed
by</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:3.8173in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Duties</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.6034in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Chief
Electoral Officer</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1562in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>For a
state</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.1256in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>ECI
designates <span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>in
consultation with State Govt</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.9284in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Supervise
election work in state subject to overall superintendence and direction of
ECI</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.6034in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>District
Election Officer</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1562in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>For a
district</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.1256in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Chief
Electoral Officer nominates in consultation with State Govt</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.8173in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Supervise
election work in district</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.6034in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Electoral
Registration Officer</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1562in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Constituency
level</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.1256in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></sp
an>ECI
designates in consultation with State Govt</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.8173in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Preparation
of electoral rolls</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.6034in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Returning
Officer</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1562in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Constituency
level</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.1256in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></sp
an>ECI
designates in consultation with State Govt</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.9284in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Conduct
of elections in constituency and <span style='font-weight:bold'>result
declaration</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.6034in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Presiding
Officers</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1562in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.1256in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>District
Election Officer appoints </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.8173in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Conducts
poll at polling station</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.6034in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Polling
officers</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1562in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.1256in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>District
Election Officer appoints </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.8173in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Conducts
poll at polling station</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.6034in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Observers</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1562in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.1256in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>ECI
nominates </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.8173in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Report
to commission directly</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Regional
Commissioners - 324(4)</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Before each general election
to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assembly of each State,
and before the first general election and thereafter before each biennial
election to the Legislative Council of each State having such Council,
the President may also appoint after consultation with the Election
Commission such </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>Regional Commissioners as he may consider necessary to
assist the Election Commission</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'> in the performance of the functions conferred on the
Commission by clause ( 1 )</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.25pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Political parties speeches
for conservation of language does not amount to corrupt practice under
Representation of People Act 1951</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Three month time limit for
the specified authorities to submit the case of persons found guilty of
corrupt practice to President</span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;background:#00CCFF;mso-highlight:#00CCFF;margin-top:
0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><img
width=16 height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Political
parties cannot issue whips to MLAs in case of election of members to
Rajyasabha</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Rajyasabha
election - open ballot<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>[Pres
ident
and Vice president - secret ballot] </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>In Rajya Sabha polls, the MLAs have to </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>show</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> their ballot paper to an </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>authorised</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> party agent </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>before</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> putting it in </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>ballot box.</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>While, in case of
independent MLAs, they do not have to show their votes to anyone at all</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Both Parliament &amp; State
legislature empowered to constitute tribunals for election disputes. So
far no such tribunal constituted</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Only Parliament is empowered
to enact a law that provides qualification and service conditions of CEC.
No such law enacted</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Provisions related to
preparation of electoral rolls can be made both by Parliament and </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>state
legislature</span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>State legislature can even
make provisions w.r.t to matters relating to elections to state
legislatures. However, State legislature can only supplement the
provisions of Parliament in this regard but </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>cannot override</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> it.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Bye elections to a
constituency </span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>need not be conducted if the
remainder of the term of member whose vacancy is to be filled is less than
</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:fuchsia;
mso-highlight:fuchsia'>one year</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Maximum no. of.
constituencies that can be contested by the same candidate is </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>2</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Prisoners does not have right
to vote as per Representation of People Act 1951</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>But people under preventive
detention has right to vote</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>In case of difference of
opinion amongst the Chief Election Commissioner and/or two other election
commissioners, the matter is decided by the Commission by majority. </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>(no supremacy of CEC)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Referendum - Proposed
legislation is referred to electorate for direct settlement</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Plebiscite - Obtaining
opinion of people on any important issue</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Initiative - People can<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>propose bill for enactment</span>
</li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Recall - Voter can remove
representative if he failed to discharge duties</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="RepresentationofPeopleAct(RPA)1950">Representation of People Act (RPA) 1950</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>RPA 1950 provides the
following</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='color:#000000;background:#00CCFF;mso-highlight:#00CCFF;margin-top:
0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><img
width=16 height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Qualification of voters</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Electoral rolls</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Delimitation of
constituencies</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Allocation of seats in
Parliament and state legislatures</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="RepresentationofPeopleAct(RPA)1951">Representation of People Act (RPA) 1951</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>RPA 1951 provides the
following</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Actual conduct of elections </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Notification,
administrative machinery </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Poll</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Election offences</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Election disputes</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Byelections</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Registration
of political parties </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Rules for
mode of conduct of elections</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Qualification
and disqualification of members of legislature </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><img
width=16 height=16
alt="Imp Prelims" src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Section
11 allows ECI to </span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>reduce or remove the
disqualification attached to a conviction</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Representation of Peoples Act
empowers EC to cancel polls only if there is an evidence of </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>booth-capturing
or use of muscle power.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Section 123(3) - </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Canvassing on the ground of religion, race, caste, community is a
corrupt electoral practice</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&quot;The appeal by a candidate or his agent or by any other person
with the consent of a candidate or <span style='font-weight:bold'>his</span>
election agent to vote or refrain from voting for any person on the ground of
his religion, race, caste, community....” is a corrupt electoral practic
</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>Recent SC judgements held that even the voter is included in the
above list &quot;his&quot;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>Arguments for seeking votes in the name of religion,
caste, race</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>The Constitution recognises
the position of religion, caste, language and gender in the social life
of the nation. Some social groups faced with histories of discrimination
and injustice. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>If the election candidate is
prohibited from speaking of the </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>legitimate</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> concerns of citizens that
the injustices faced by them on the basis of traits having an origin in
religion, race, caste, community or language, it would reduce democracy
to an abstraction [centuries of structural and institutional
discrimination].</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Social mobilisation is a
powerful instrument of bringing marginalised groups into the mainstream.
With-out addressing them, grave injustice will be caused to them</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="DelimitationCommission">Delimitation Commission</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Statutory
body</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> established
for delimiting constituencies based on population </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>As per Article 82, Parliament
is empowered to enact Delimitation Act after every census under which
Delimitation Commission is constituted </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Commission
orders have a force of law and cannot be challenged in the courts</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Its reports are laid </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>before Upper
House</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> and the
state legislative assembly concerned, but </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>changes/modifications are not
possible</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> by
them. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Delimitation in J&amp;K is
done under state Constitution</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Electoralbonds">Electoral bonds</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Govt introduced electoral
bonds for donors to purchase to fund political parties</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;color:#404040'>Bond is a debt
security</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;color:#404040'>Electoral bonds
make the donors anonymous but it will not make electoral funding
transparent</span></li>
</ul>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle;color:#404040'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Features</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle;color:#404040'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Electoral
Bond would be a bearer instrument in the nature of a Promissory Note and
an interest free banking instrument</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle;color:#404040'
lang=en-US><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt'>A </span><span style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>citizen</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> of India
or a </span><span style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>body</span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> incorporated in India will be
eligible to purchase the bond. [only from SBI]</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle;color:#404040'><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>A person
being an individual can buy Electoral Bonds, either singly or </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>jointly</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> with other
individuals.</span></li>
</ul>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Electoral Bond (s) would be
issued/purchased for any value, in multiples of Rs.1,000, Rs.10,000,
Rs.1,00,000, Rs.10,00,000 and Rs.1,00,00,000 from the Specified Branches
of the State Bank of India (SBI).</span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Max 1 crore denomination </span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><img
width=16 height=16
alt="Fact &amp; Figure">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>Electoral bonds with denomination of Rs 1 crore
accounted for more than 91 per cent of the amount raised. </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Electoral bonds will not
carry the name of payee</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Electoral Bonds would have a
</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>life
of only 15 days</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>
during which it can be used for making donation </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>o</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>nly to the political parties registered</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> under section 29A of the
Representation of the Peoples Act, 1951 and </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>which secured not less than one per cent</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'> of the votes</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt'> polled in the last general election to the House of the People
or a Legislative Assembly.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Electoral Bonds under the
Scheme shall be available for purchase for a period of 10 days each in
the months of January, April, July and October, as may be specified by
the Central Government. An additional period of 30 days shall be
specified by the Central Government in the year of the General election
to the House of People</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>The Electoral Bond(s) shall
be encashed by an eligible political party only through a designated bank
account with the authorised bank within 15 days </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Registered political parties
and those received not less than 1 percent of votes in last Loksabha and
assembly election are eligible to be received </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Political parties need to
file returns to EC of the quantum of money received through electoral
bonds</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Donors will be eligible for</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> tax
deduction</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>
while<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>parties will be eligi
ble for
</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>exemption
</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>The Electoral Bonds have
some built in security features to eliminate chances of forgery or
presentation of fake bonds. These include a </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>random
serial number invisible to the naked eye</span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>.</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>It is not available for trading on stock exchanges and cannot be
used as collateral for loans. It is available only in physical form.</span></li>
</ul>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>ECI objections</span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.75in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>This scheme would
enable&nbsp;the&nbsp;creation&nbsp;of
shell&nbsp;companies&nbsp;for&nbsp;the&nbsp;sole&nbsp;purpose&nbsp;of&nbsp;making&nbsp;political
donations&nbsp;and&nbsp;no&nbsp;other&nbsp;business</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It would compromise
transparency </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Foreign influence on Indian
elections</span></li>
<ul type=square style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Unchecked&nbsp;foreign&nbsp;funding&nbsp;of&nbsp;political&nbsp;parties,&nbsp;leading
to&nbsp;foreign&nbsp;influence&nbsp;on&nbsp;India’s&nbsp;policy
aking</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>New foreign regulations
allows FII to invest in Govt bonds </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="ModelCodeofConduct">Model Code of Conduct</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>It is not statutory</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It is a set of guidelines </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>laid down by the Election Commission</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> to govern the conduct of
political parties and candidates in the run-up to an election.</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Do's and Don’ts f
elections</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Level playing field for all
political parties, to keep the campaign fair and healthy, avoid clashes
and conflicts between parties, and ensure peace and order.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Its main aim is to ensure
that the ruling party, either at the Centre or in the states, does not
misuse its official position to gain an unfair advantage in an election.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>The Model Code of Conduct
comes into force the moment on&nbsp;the&nbsp;announcement&nbsp;of
the&nbsp;poll&nbsp;schedule&nbsp; and remains in force</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'> till the results are declared.</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It&nbsp;is&nbsp;also&nbsp;</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>applicable&nbsp;to
a “caretaker”&nbsp;government</span><span style='font-family
libri;
font-size:11.0pt'> on&nbsp;premature&nbsp;dissolution
of&nbsp;a&nbsp;State&nbsp;Assembly,&nbsp;</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It applies to all political
parties, their candidates and polling agents, the government in power, and
</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>all government employees.</span></li>
</ul>


<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="CanECpostponeorcountermandpolls?">Can EC postpone or countermand polls ?</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Under Article 324 of constitution, </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>EC is provided with extraordinary powers that should be used </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>sparingly</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Representation of Peoples Act
empowers EC to cancel polls only if there is an evidence of </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>booth-capturing
or use of muscle power.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>But no provision to postpone elections on the
grounds of money power</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt'>. EC resort to<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Artic
le 324
to countermand in extraordinary cases</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Election Commission of India
sought amendment to RPA to include specific powers to postpone or
countermand polls on the grounds of use of money power</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="ReformCommittees">Reform Committees</h2>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0791in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1990
Dinesh Goswami Committee</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.2729in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Electoral
Reforms</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0791in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>1993 Vohra Committee</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.2729in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Nexus
b/w Crime and politics</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0791in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1998
Indrajit Gupta Committee</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.2729in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>State
funding of elections</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0791in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1999
Law Commission of India </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.3423in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Report
on reform of electoral laws</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Internal
democracy, financial transparency and accountability in the working of the
political parties.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0791in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>2000-02
National Commission to review working of constitution </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.2729in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>MN
Venkatachaliah</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0791in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>2004
ECI</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.2729in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Proposed
Electoral reforms</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0791in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>2007
Second ARC report</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.2729in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Report
of Ethics in Governance</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0791in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>2010 Tankha Committee</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.2729in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Election
laws and electoral reforms</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="ECCompositionIssues">EC Composition Issues</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>As per Article 324(2), </span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>The Election Commission shall consist of the Chief Election
Commissioner and such number of other Election Commissioners, if any, as the
President may from time to time fix and the appointment of the Chief Election
Commissioner and other Election Commissioners shall,<span style='font-weight:
bold'> subject to the provisions of any law made in that behalf by Parliament</span>,
be made by the President</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>However, until now, no law
has been made by Parliament leaving gaps which leaves the appointment of
such a crucial post solely to the executives</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Recently, Supreme Court had
asked the centre </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>why no enabling law has yet been framed. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Gaps are</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>The constitution has </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>not
prescribed the qualifications</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'> (legal, educational, administrative, or judicial) of
the members of election commission. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>The constitution has </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>not
debarred the retiring Election commissioner from any further appointment
by the government</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>.
</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>There is also </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>no clarity
regarding the power division between the Chief Election Commissioner and
other Election Commissioners. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>The CEC and the Election
Commissioners enjoy the same decision-making powers which are suggestive
of the fact that their powers are at par with each other. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Although the provision to
Article 324 (5) of the Constitution safeguards the CEC from arbitrary
removal, t</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>he same provision is silent about the procedure for
removal of the two EC</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt'>. It only provides that they cannot be removed from office except
on the recommendation of the CEC.</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Decision making by </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>majority</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Service conditions and tenure
of Election Commissioners (not CEC - 6 years) and regional commissioners
is decided by </span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;
background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>President </span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="NationalPartyStatus">National Party Status </h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt="Imp Prelims" src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>Under the revised rules of EC, a party’s performa
ce </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>over </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
fuchsia;mso-highlight:fuchsia'>two</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> consecutive Lok Sabha or assembly
elections is considered,</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'> as opposed to one previously, for granting recognition
as a national party.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span>
</li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Privileges of National
Parties · </span></li
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Unique symbol · </spa
n></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Free airtime on public
broadcasters AIR and Doordarshan during the Lok Sabha elections. · <
/span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Two free copies of electoral
rolls </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Their candidates need only
one proposer to file their nomination papers. ·</span></li
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Deploy 40 star campaigners
whose expenditure is not clubbed with the election expenses of an
individual candidate.</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Byheart src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_bce95a45add849f9b50120d225499a56~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt'>Criteria to be National Party </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>at least</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> six
percent(6%)</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> of
the valid votes polled in </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>any four or more states</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>, at a general election to
the House of the People or, to the State Legislative Assembly; </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>and</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt'> in addition, it wins </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>at least four seats in the House of
the People from any State or States</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> It wins </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>at least
two percent (2%) </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>seats</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> in the
House of the People</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt'> (i.e., 11 seats in the existing House having 543 members), and
these members are elected from</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> at least three different States. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>A party has got recognition
as a state party in at least four states.</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Byheart src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_bce95a45add849f9b50120d225499a56~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt'>Criteria to be State party</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>it secures at least six percent (
6%) of
the valid votes polled in the State at a general election, either to the
House of the People or to the Legislative Assembly of the State
concerned; </span><span style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>and</span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>
in
addition, it wins at least two seats in the Legislative Assembly of the
State concerned (OR 1 Lok Sabha seat)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR it wins at least three
percent (3%) of the total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of
the State, or at least three seats in the Assembly, </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>whichever
is more.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>OR eight
percent of the valid votes polled in the state at a General elections to
Lok Sabha /Assembly </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="BenefitsreceivedbyrecognisedpoliticalpartiesrecognisedbyEC">Benefits received by recognised political parties recognised by EC</h3>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Exclusive allocation of
election symbols. </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Every national party is
allotted a symbol </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>exclusively reserved</span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> for its use </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>throughout the country</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Similarly, </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>every state
party</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> is
allotted a symbol exclusively reserved </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>for its use in the state or
states in which it is so recognised</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>. </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Access to electoral rolls.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Time for political broadcast
on state owned television and radio-stations.</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="RegisterandDeregisterofpoliticalparties">Register and De register of political parties</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>EC has the mandate to
register a political party, while</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'> it lacks power under electoral laws
to deregister a political party. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Have power to delist them</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>There are over 1,780
registered, but unrecognised political parties in the country</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Section 29A of Representation
of People’s Act, 1951, lays down various provisions in regards to t
registration and recognition of political parties in India</span></li>
</ul>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Totalizermachine">Totalizer machine</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>ECI seeks to
introduce totaliser machines for counting of votes. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>It is an interface, to which
a cluster of EVMs can be connected simultaneously and the consolidated
result of the group of EVMs can be obtained without disclosing the votes
polled by a candidate polling-station-wise</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Totalizer machine </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>mixes votes
from various booths for counting. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>In the current
system, votes from each Electronic voting machine are counted separately
and hence </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>reveal the voting trends</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US> in each polling
station which leaves the voters in that vicinity open to </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>harassment</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>, </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>intimidation</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US> and </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>post-election
victimization </span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>(</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-IN> for e.g. delaying infrastructure developing or other welfare
activities).</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>It will add an extra layer of
security to the voting process thus upholding the basic principle of
secret ballot as the present EVMs do not provide any avenues for mixing of
votes</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Mixing of votes as mandated
under the Rule no 59A of the Election Rules which states “mixing of
votes
in cases where it is considered ‘absolutely necessary’</span><
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>However, it has been argued
that it camouflages the booth-wise performance of candidates which is
essential for parties to devise “booth-management” strategies (
king at
booth level to mobilise voters).</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="VVPATVoterVerifiablePaperAuditTrail">VVPAT Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>VVPAT provides feedback to
voters to verify if the vote has gone to the intended candidate </span></li>
</ul>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>VVPAT is an independent
verification printer machine attached to EVM</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Whenever voter presses EVM
button, a paper slip is printed through VVPAT</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Slip contains poll symbol and
name of the candidate </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>After the voter views the
slip, the VVPAT machine drops the slip into sealed box attached to the EVM
after 7 seconds (sealed box can only be accessible by authorised
persons)Constituency level</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="NOTANoneOfTheAbove">NOTA None Of The Above</h2>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>NOTA in India </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>does </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>not</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'> provide for a ‘right to reject</span><span style='font-f
mily:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>’. Irrespective of the no.of votes polled
for
NOTA, the candidate with the maximum votes wins the election.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>In&nbsp;People’s&nbsp;Union&nbsp;For&nbsp;Civil&nbsp;Liberties&nbsp;v.&nbsp;Un
on
Of&nbsp;India (September&nbsp;27,&nbsp;2013),</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>&nbsp;the&nbsp;Supreme
Court&nbsp;had&nbsp;ruled&nbsp;that&nbsp;a&nbsp;None&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;Above
(NOTA)&nbsp;option&nbsp;“may&nbsp;be&nbsp;provided&nbsp;in&nbsp;EVM

so&nbsp;that&nbsp;voters&nbsp;are&nbsp;able&nbsp;to&nbsp;exercise&nbsp;their&nbsp;“rig
not&nbsp;to&nbsp;vote&nbsp;while&nbsp;maintaining&nbsp;their&nbsp;right&nbsp;of
secrecy”</span></l
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>If&nbsp;a
situation&nbsp;arose&nbsp;where&nbsp;the&nbsp;number&nbsp;of&nbsp;NOTA
votes&nbsp;exceeded&nbsp;the&nbsp;number&nbsp;of&nbsp;votes&nbsp;polled
by&nbsp;any&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;candidates,&nbsp;the&nbsp;candidate&nbsp;with
the&nbsp;highest&nbsp;number&nbsp;of&nbsp;votes&nbsp;would&nbsp;be&nbsp;declared&nbsp;winner.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>NOTA option is also applicable to Rajyasabha
polls</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>NOTA is now just a symbolic
instrument but not provide for right to reject</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>When right to reject is
provisioned, then NOTA will become meaningful instrument</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>NOTA polling figures are
still small. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>On an average, the maximum
NOTA vote share has not crossed 2.02% of the total votes polled in any
election cycle.</span></li>
</ul>