Judiciary - General

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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="IndianJudicialsystem">Indian Judicial system </h2>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>
<p style='margin:0in'><img width=744
height=492
src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_31153152e9784b1f994349b86ccdfd1a~mv2.png"></p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Supreme
Court SC</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>High
Court HC</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>District
Court (additional, joint, assistant ; Subordinate judge court; Munsiff court;
city civil courts)</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Sessions
court (additional, assistant; Chief judicial magistrate; Judicial magistrate,
Metropolitan magistrate )</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Civil
Court</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Quasi-Judicial
bodies</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Tribunals</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Armed
forces Tribunals</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Human
Rights court in every district by State[established under Protection of Human
Rights Act 1993]</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Lok
Adalats under LSA Act 1987</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Permanent
Lok Adalats under LSA Act 1987 </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Consumer
Courts - quasi judicial</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Family
Courts by State Govt under Family Courts Act 1984</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Gram
Nyayalayas by State Govt under Gram Nyayalaya Act 2008<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></p
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Nari
Adalats (women courts) in various States</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Parivarik
Mahila Lok Adalats evolved by National Commission for Women</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Court
Martial</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Military
Courts</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Fast
Track Courts FTC by State Govt </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Industrial
Courts and Labour courts </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Special
Courts</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="TypesofCasesandLaws">Types of Cases and Laws</h2>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Civil</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Criminal</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Constitutional</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Preventive Detention cases</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>Taxation laws</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='color:#000000;margin:0in;text-indent:-.1666in;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5' lang=en-US id="Writs"<img
width=16 height=16 alt=Byheart src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_bce95a45add849f9b50120d225499a56~mv2.png">&nbsp;Writs</h2>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Taken
from English law</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<div style='direction:ltr'>
<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.025in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Habeaus
corpus </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.4631in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>To
have the body of</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1673in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Aggrieved
person</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.9534in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Issued
to Public authorities and <span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>private
individuals</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.025in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Mandamus</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.4631in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>We
command</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1673in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Aggrieved
person</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:7.0645in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Issued
to <span style='font-weight:bold'>public bodies, corporation, inferior </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline'>court</span><span
style='font-weight:bold'>, </span><span style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:
underline'>tribunal</span><span style='font-weight:bold'>, </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline'>Govt</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Mandamus
can't be issued to <span style='font-weight:bold'>Chief Justice of HC</span>,
President, Governor, when duty is discretionary, to enforce a contractual
obligation, to enforce a dept instruction that don’t have statutory f
rce, <span
style='font-weight:bold'>private individual<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
</span>[NOTE: No Speaker implies that can be issued]</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.025in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Prohibition</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.4631in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>To
forbid</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Dont
proceed</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1673in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Aggrieved
person</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:7.0645in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Issued
to Judicial/Quasi-Judicial authorities but <span style='background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>not to administrative</span> authorities (since their
proceedings are not of judicial nature), legislative bodies, private.
Preventive</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Issued
on grounds of Exceeding jurisdiction/ lack of jurisdiction to transfer the
case/squash the order</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.025in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Certiorari</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.4826in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>To be
informed/<span style='font-weight:bold'>certified</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>U
don’t proceed, I will take it OR U squash order</
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1673in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Aggrieved
person</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.9756in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Issued
to Judicial/Quasi-Judicial/<span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>administrative</span> authorities but not to legislative bodies,
private</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Preventive and Curative</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Issued
on the grounds of exceeding/lack of jurisdiction or <span style='background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>error of law</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.025in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Quo-warranty</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.4631in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>By
what authority</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.1673in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Any
one</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:7.0111in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Issued
to <span style='font-weight:bold'>Substantive</span> Public Office of <span
style='font-weight:bold'>permanent</span> character<span style='font-weight:
bold'> created by Statute or Constitution.</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Not to ministerial office</span>
and private offices</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>To
enquire into legality of claim to public office</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>HC can issues writs even
outside of its territorial jurisdiction</span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> if the cause of action arises
in its jurisdiction</span></li>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt;color:black;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>HC may refuse
to exercise its jurisdiction over writ cases as under Article 226, HC
Writ power is discretionary</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>The Supreme Court can issue
writ only in case of violation of any of the fundamental rights contained
in Part-III of the constitution, while the High Courts can issue writs
not only in case of violation of fundamental rights but also in case of
violation of any legal rights of the citizens</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Note</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Byheart src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_bce95a45add849f9b50120d225499a56~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt;color:black;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Mandamus
cannot be issued to Chief Justice of High Court acting in Judicial
capacity</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Judgesremoval">Judges removal</h2>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>SC/HC Judges removal
process<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>is </span><spa
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>mentioned</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> in </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Article 124(4)</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> of the Constitution and is </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>described/detailed</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> in the</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'> Judges (Inquiry) Act 1968.</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>As per constitution, </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Judge of SC/HC can be</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> removed
by President</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>
on the recommendation of Parliament</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Grounds: Proved
misbehavior or incapacity </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt=Tricky src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_06c2a583c0c34b17b47620d978f66ccf~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Judges Enquiries Act 1968
deals with the removal of SC/HC judges</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Speaker/Chairman of House
may admit or refuse to admit the motion </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>If the motion is admitted,
a </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt'>three-member committee</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'> is set up to investigate the allegations. The
committee is made up of a</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> Supreme Court judge</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>, the</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> Chief
Justice of any High Court</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>, and a ‘</span><span style='font-weight:bol
font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>distinguished jurist</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>’ nominated by </s
an><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Speaker/Chairman
</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>…..</span></l
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Finally, President passes the order to remove
Judge [Presidential Order]</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Removal procedure not mentioned in the
constitution</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Even if SC recommends for removal of judge to President,
President cannot take an executive action. Judge impeachment is an
legislative action</span></li>
</ul>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h3>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h3>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="JudicialReview">Judicial Review</h2>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Articles - 13, 32, 131-135,
143, 145, 226, 246, 256</span></li>
</ul>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Decision of
anti-defection law by presiding officer is subjected to judicial review
on the ground of malafide, perverse</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Court held that
President officer while deciding question under anti defection functions
like a tribunal. Hence, like other tribunals, it is subjected to
judicial review </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>However, Courts cannot
question the power of Presiding officer in deciding anti-defection.
Cannot direct speaker to take a decision</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Review only after
decision and in 2020, SC held that specific time frame can be set to
take decision by Speaker </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Decision of Speaker to
classify a bill as Money bill or not is subjected to judicial review
within the definition of Article 110</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>[SC said this because it is
procedural irregularity]</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>All 3 types of
emergency are subjected to Judicial Review</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='color:#000000;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><img width=16
height=16 alt="Imp Prelims" src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;<span style='font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt'>Proclamation of national emergency is subjected to
judicial review on the ground of malafide or declaration based on wholly
extraneous and irrelevant facts or is absurd or perverse</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h3>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h3>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="PresidentandJudiciary">President and Judiciary</h3>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Presidents ordinance
making power can be challenged on the ground of malafide</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Intentionally,
President prorogues a house to issue ordinance</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Pardoning power of
President is subjected to judicial review on the grounds of irrational,
arbitrary and discrimination </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>President decision to dissolve Loksabha </span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;background:fuchsia;
mso-highlight:fuchsia'>cannot</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> be challenged
in the court of law</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>However, President decision to dissolve State
assembly in case of President Rule is subjected to Judicial review</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>President is not bound
by the advice of SC in case of</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>President seeks advise
of SC in case of any law/bill</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>President seeking
advice of SC in case of pre-constitutional treaties, acts etc. </span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Recommendation of EC is
</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt'>binding</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt'> on President in case of disqualification of parliament members
w.r.t Representation of People Act 1951</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Recommendation of
enquiry committee to remove UPSC chairman is binding on President</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>President's active
application of mind is necessary for decisions under Article 254(2) and
is subjected to judicial review </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Article
254(2)</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>
provides that<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In case of s
ubjects
of concurrent list, if a State law receives presidential assent after </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>due consideration</span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>, then it can </span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>apply
in contravention to the Central law in that particular State</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h3>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Terms">Terms</h2>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Legalentities">Legal entities</h3>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>In common law
jurisprudence, there are two types of persons —</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Natural persons or
human beings and </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Artificial persons,
which are also known as juristic persons, juridical entity or a legal
person other than a natural person</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Legal or juristic
persons are created by law and recognised as a legal entity, having
distinct identity, legal personality and besides </span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>duties and rights. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>They include private
business firm or entity, non-governmental or government organisations,
trusts and societies, besides others</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>July 2018, Uttarakhand
High court declared </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>entire animal kingdom including avian and
aquatic as legal entities</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Mar 2020, HC declared Sukhna
Lake in Chandigarh as a </span><span style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:
underline;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Living entity</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>India's first legal human
status – Ganga and Yamuna river – on Mar 20</span><
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It implies that whenever
you are harming the river, it is being referred as harming the human
person and the same punishment will be awarded</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Central<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>and State Govts are also legal e
ntities
</span></li>
</ul>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h3>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Compoundablevsnon-compoundable">Compoundable vs non-compoundable</h3>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Compoundable offence is
less serious in nature and they</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> mostly affects private
persons</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>.
They</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> can be compromised</span><span style='font-family:
"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> by the victim and offender,</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> with
or without the permission of court</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>. Under compoundable offence, upon a compromise, the
offender is acquitted without any trial.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Non compoundable
offence is serious in nature. Under this a</span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> private party as well as
the society are affected</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>. </span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>No compromise</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> is allowed under this
type of offence. Even court does not has the authority and power to
compound such offence. Under the non-compoundable offence, full trial is
held which ends with the acquittal or conviction of offender based on the
evidence given.</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="LegalrightvsFundamentalright">Legal right vs Fundamental right</h3>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Fundamental right is so
basic that it cannot be denied by State and are enforceable by SC and HC.
Even the law sought to amend fundamental rights will become
unconstitutional and unenforceable (if it effects basic structure of
constitution) </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Legal right is the right
guaranteed by the act of legislature</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Ex: Right to property -
Initially a fundamental right and<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
</span>now a legal right/constitutional right </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>If it is a fundamental
right, even state cannot acquire property of a person forcefully in any
means( even by enacting a law)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>If it is a legal right,
state can acquire property even forcefully that it can enact a law to
acquire and since it is law, it is legal </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5' id="Reviewpetition">Review
petition</h3>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>A review petition can be
filed by the parties aggrieved by the decisions of Supreme Court/High
Court </span></li>
</ul>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5' id="Curativepetition">Curative
petition </h3>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>A&nbsp;curative&nbsp;petition&nbsp;is&nbsp;normally&nbsp;allowed
only&nbsp;on&nbsp;the&nbsp;limited&nbsp;grounds&nbsp;of&nbsp;violation&nbsp;of&nbsp;principles&nbsp;of
natural&nbsp;justice&nbsp;and&nbsp;circumstances&nbsp;suggesting&nbsp;possible
bias&nbsp;on&nbsp;the&nbsp;part&nbsp;of&nbsp;judges</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Curative - </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>to prevent
abuse of process as well as to </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>cure
miscarriage of justice</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>where a question was
raised that whether an aggrieved person is entitled to any relief against
the final order/judgment of the Supreme court after dismissal of review
petition.</span></li>
</ul>
<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5' id="Mercypetition">Mercy
petition</h3>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>When a person has lost all
the remedies available to him/her under all the prevailing laws as well
as under the Constitutional remedies, he may file a mercy petition before
the President of India under Article 72 or Governor under Article 161</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Petition will be treated on
mercy but not on the legality of the case </span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="AccesstoJusticeProjectforMarginalizedPersons">Access to Justice Project for Marginalized Persons</h2>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>It is being implemented
by </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>Ministry of Law and Justice</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>and </span><span style='font-w
eight:
bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>United Nation Development
Programme</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>
(UNDP). </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Pro bono legal services
and Nyaya Mitra scheme and Tele law initiative are the sub schemes under
this project </span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="NyayaMitrascheme">Nyaya Mitra scheme</h2>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>It </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>aims
to reduce pendency of cases across </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>selected</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> districts,</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> with a special focus on those </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>pending
for more than 10 years. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>This scheme would play
a pivotal role in assisting litigants </span><span style='font-weight:
bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>who are suffering due to
delay in investigation</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> or trial, by actively identifying such cases through
the</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'> National Judicial Data Grid</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>, providing legal
advice and connecting litigants to government agencies and civil society
organizations. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>This initiative would
be launched in 227 districts</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='color:#000000;margin:0in;text-indent:-.1666in;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5' lang=en-US id="Probonolegalservices"<img
width=16 height=16 alt="Imp Prelims" src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;Pro
bono legal services</h2>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>It is a web-based
initiative which can be accessed through the website </span><a
href="http://www.doj.gov.in"><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>www.doj.gov.in</span></a><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Litigants</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> who
cannot afford legal services can apply for legal aid and advice from pro
bono lawyers</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>.
</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>The idea behind this
online initiative is to promote the concept of legal aid in an
institutionalized manner and ensure that those </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>lawyers
who volunteer</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>
for such services are duly recognized.</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Tele-Lawinitiative">Tele-Law initiative</h2>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Union Ministry of Law and
Justice has partnered with the </span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Ministry of Electronics and
Information Technology</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>To provide legal aid
services through its </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Common
Service Centres</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>
(CSC) at the Panchayat level across India</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>It will
enable people to seek legal advice from lawyers through video
conferencing. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Law school clinics,
District Legal Service Authorities, voluntary service providers and NGOs
working on legal aid can also be connected through the CSCs in order to
strengthen access to justice for the marginalized. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>The National Legal
Services Authority (NALSA) will also provide a panel of lawyers from
State capitals</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Every CSC will engage a</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> Para
Legal Volunteer (PLV)</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>, who will be the first point of contact for the rural
citizens</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h3 style='color:#000000;margin:0in;text-indent:-.1666in;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5' lang=en-US id="ParaLegalVolunteers"<img
width=16 height=16 alt="Imp Prelims" src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_fab708a3e3f249ad85c73c8524bc0ea1~mv2.png">&nbsp;Para
Legal Volunteers </h3>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>They will be the first
point of contact for the rural citizens and will help them in
understanding the legal issues, explain the advice given by lawyers and
assist in further action required. </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Women PLVs will be
encouraged and trained under the Scheme. The aim is to promote women
entrepreneurship and empowerment and ensure women participation</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>&nbsp;</p>
<h1 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:16.0pt;color:#1E4E79'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</h1>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="Section124A">Section 124A</h2>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Section 124A deals with
Sedition </span></li>
</ul>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Sedition&nbsp;is&nbsp;defined&nbsp;as&nbsp;“disaffection”&nbsp;against&nbsp;the&nbsp;
ernment,
or&nbsp;bringing&nbsp;it&nbsp;into&nbsp;“hatred&nbsp;or contempt
</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Invoked when there
is&nbsp;an&nbsp;</span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>imminent&nbsp;threat&nbsp;to&nbsp;public&nbsp;order&nbsp;and&nbsp;incitement&nbsp;to&nbsp;take&nbsp;up&nbsp;arms&nbsp;or&nbsp;resort&nbsp;to&nbsp;violence</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It&nbsp;is&nbsp;punishable&nbsp;with&nbsp;three&nbsp;years&nbsp;in
prison&nbsp;or&nbsp;a&nbsp;life&nbsp;term and is a non-bailable offence </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It
was&nbsp;a&nbsp;colonial&nbsp;law&nbsp;directed
against&nbsp;strong&nbsp;criticism&nbsp;of
the&nbsp;British&nbsp;administration.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Kedar Nath Singh vs State of
Bihar 1962, SC held that </span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>only a “violent re
olution
against the government attracts the charge of sedition.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>A free expression of
disapprobation against the ruling government's action with an intention
to better the condition of the people is not treason</span></li>
</ul>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>It has to be</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>against&nbsp;the
state,&nbsp;not&nbsp;against&nbsp;the&nbsp;government</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> and also
there&nbsp;has&nbsp;to&nbsp;be&nbsp;a&nbsp;</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>direct
incitement&nbsp;to&nbsp;violence.</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Cons</span></li>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>It&nbsp;defines&nbsp;the&nbsp;offence&nbsp;in
wide&nbsp;terms&nbsp;threatening&nbsp;the liberty&nbsp;of&nbsp;citizens</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Process of having to
prove innocence of offence is itself is a punishment </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>The&nbsp;problem&nbsp;is&nbsp;not&nbsp;with&nbsp;the&nbsp;section,
but&nbsp;with&nbsp;its&nbsp;abuse</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>NCRB data
shows, b/w 2016-19, </span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-IN>&nbsp;no. of&nbsp;cases
of&nbsp;sedition&nbsp;under&nbsp;Section&nbsp;124A</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-IN>&nbsp; increased&nbsp;by&nbsp;160%</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-IN>,&nbsp;while&nbsp;the&nbsp;</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-IN>rate&nbsp;of conviction&nbsp;dropped&nbsp;to&nbsp;3.3%</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-IN>&nbsp;in&nbsp;2019
from&nbsp;33.3%&nbsp;in&nbsp;2016.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Need to have relook of
the section </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>After&nbsp;all,&nbsp;when&nbsp;the&nbsp;situation
changes,&nbsp;the&nbsp;statute&nbsp;calls&nbsp;for&nbsp;a
change&nbsp;as&nbsp;law&nbsp;cannot&nbsp;afford&nbsp;to&nbsp;remain&nbsp;static</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>