Imp Judgements

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lang=en-US id="ImportantJudgements">Important Judgements</h2>

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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Case
name</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Highlight</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Remark</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Second
Judges Case 1993</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Judges
Collegium for appointment of Judges</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Judiciary
took over the power of appointing judges from the executive to itself,
holding that the government’s primacy in appointing judges would al
compromise the independence of the judiciary. </p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-style:italic'>Supreme Court Advocates-on-Record Association v.
Union of India 2015</span></p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>NJAC
unconstitutional</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>National
Judicial Appointments Commission</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Supreme
Court struck down the NJAC Act on the ground that it diluted the independence
of the judiciary which was part of the basic structure of the Constitution</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>AK
Gopalan Case 1950</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Preventive
detention do not violate FR</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:5.784in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Protection under Article
21 is available against only arbitrary executive action but not
arbitrary legislative action</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>However, Menaka Gandhi
Case 1978, protection against both are available </span></li>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Berubari
Union Case 1960</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Preamble
<span style='font-weight:bold'>not part</span> of Constitution. </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>However
some assistance derived from interpretation of preamble</p>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>President referred to SC
on implementation of Indo-Pak agreement relating to Berubari union( a
thana, WB) and exchange of enclaves.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Parliament not empowered
to make agreements to cede a territory except by Constitutional
amendments</span></li>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Kesavananda Bharati </span>vs State of Kerala <span
style='font-weight:bold'>case 1973</span></p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Basic
structure</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Judicial
review</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Preamble
part of constitution</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Reasonable
classification do not violate FR [Doctrine of Reasonableness] </p>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Doctrine of basic
structure of constitution - unalterable</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Judicial review is basic
structure</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Preamble is part of constitution and basic </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Constitution should be
read or interpreted in the light of grand and noble vision of Preamble</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>DPSP 39b and 39c shall not
be void on the ground of FR 14,19,31</span></li>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Indira
Gandhi vs Raj Narayan Case 1975<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span
></p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Regarding
Election Disputes involving the Prime Minister and Purpose of 39th Amendment
of the Constitution</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:5.602in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>39th
CAA -Retrospective law- election of the Prime Minster and the Speaker cannot
be challenged in any court in the country. It can be rather challenged before
a committee formed by the Parliament itself. Indira Gandhi did this since she
was found guilty by Allahabad HC for malpractices in election (used govt
servants for election work). </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>SC
verdict is Gandhi to continue but the amendment is stuck down</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>ADM
Jabalpur, 1976</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>During&nbsp;a&nbsp;national&nbsp;Emergency&nbsp;the&nbsp;citizen&nbsp;had&nbsp;no
recourse&nbsp;to&nbsp;her&nbsp;fundamental&nbsp;rights</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Menaka Gandhi vs Union of India 1978</span></p>
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vertical-align:top;width:2.902in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Protection
of life and personal liberty</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:5.6798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
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margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Protection under Article 21 is available both
against the arbitrary executive action and arbitrary legislative action
.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Expanded the scope of Article 21 to include more
rights</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>This overruled the
judgment of Gopalan 1950 case where SC limited only to arbitrary
executive action</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>SR Bommai Vs Union of India 1994</span></p>
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vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:underline'>Misuse of Article 356</span></p>
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vertical-align:top;width:5.602in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Art 365
should be invoked only as the last resort power given to President and when
the State’s Constitutional machinery had failed.</
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Samata judgement 1997</span></p>
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vertical-align:top;width:2.9993in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Against
Leasing out scheduled areas to mining companies in AP</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:5.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>All
lands leased to private mining companies in the scheduled areas are null and
void.</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Only
the State Mineral Development Corporation or a cooperative of the tribal
people could take up mining activity and that too in compliance with the
Forest Conservation Act and the Environment Protection Act.</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Samata,
NGO in AP.</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Jagadambika pal case 1998</span></p>
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vertical-align:top;width:2.9993in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Composite
floor test in assembly</span></p>
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vertical-align:top;width:5.5541in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Kaiser-I-Hind
Pvt. Ltd. v. National Textile Corporation (2002)</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>President
application of mind in the cases referred from governor</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:5.643in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Article<span style='font-weight:bol
d'> 254(2</span>),
that the words “reserved for consideration” means<
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='background:yellow;mso
-highlight:
yellow'>active application of mind</span> by the President (why and
what)<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>.<spa
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Granting of assent under Article 254
(2) is
not exercise of legislative power of President such as contemplated under
Article 123 but it is part of<span style='font-weight:bold'> legislative
procedure.</span> Procedure is always subjected to judicial review”</
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>People
Union for Civil Liberties PUCL v. Union of India 2013</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>NOTA
introduced by EC</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Justice
J.S. Verma in December 1995</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:2.9993in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Hinduism
is a way of life judgement</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:5.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>“Hindutv
or “Hinduism” during an election campaign not a corrupt practice i
iolation
of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 (RPA) since the terms
ordinarily refer not to religion but only to “a way of life”
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Mohammed
Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum 1985</p>
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vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Muslim
husband’s obligation to provide maintenance for a divorced wife</
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>who is unable to maintain herself sim
ilar to
alimony</p>
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<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>DC
Wadhwa Case 1986</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Repeated
ordinances [in case of Bihar]</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Held
that Exceptional power of law making through ordinance cannot be used as
substitute for the legislative power of the state legislature.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Justice
K. S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) 2017</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Right to Privacy </span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>SC
upheld that<span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> right to
privacy is protected as a fundamental constitutional right</span> under <span
style='font-weight:bold'>Articles 14, 19 and 21</span> of the Constitution of
India</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Jaya Bachchan v.
Union of India 2006</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Office
of Profit </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.602in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>SC widened Office
of Profit as “an office which is capable of yielding a profit or pecun
ary
gain</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.9083in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>BP
Singhal Case 2010</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Governor
</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.602in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Governor removal by Centre can
be challenged in the courts on the grounds of arbitrariness or bad faith</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>M. Nagaraj vs
Union Of India 2006</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Test of backwardness of caste
not required </span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Conditional Reservations in
promotions</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.6722in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Once a caste was
included in the Schedule and a presidential order was issued, there was no
need for fresh adjudication<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>of
their
backwardness</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Upheld
the constitutional validity of reservations for SCs and STs to include
promotions with three conditions: </p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>quantifiable data on
the backwardness of SCs &amp; STs </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>the facts about their
inadequate representation </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>t</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>he overall
administrative efficiency </span></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Jarnail
Singh vs Lachhmi Gupta Case (2018)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Reservations in promotions
(Flexible)</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.602in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Supreme
Court allowed for grant of quota for promotions in the government jobs to SCs
and STs without the need to &quot;collect quantifiable data&quot; (provided
some flexibility in granting reservations in promotions)</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Indira&nbsp;Sawhney&nbsp;judgment
1992<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>OR Mandal case<spa
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></p
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.902in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Reservations
to OBCs</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.6798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>27% reservation in
government jobs to socially and educational Backward Classes is
constitutionally valid</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Creamy
layer criteria</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Capped&nbsp;the&nbsp;reservation
limit&nbsp;to&nbsp;50%.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;
mso-highlight:yellow'>Rejected the additional reservation of 10% for
poorer sections of higher castes</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>No
reservations in promotions for OBCs</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Kihoto Hollohan
Case 1993</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.902in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Anti-defection
law</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.6798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2215in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Presiding Officer decision is subjec
ted to
judicial review</p>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Court held that President
officer while deciding question under anti defection functions like a
tribunal. Hence, like other tribunals, it is subjected to judicial
review </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>However, Courts cannot
question the power of Presiding officer in deciding anti-defection.
Cannot direct speaker to take a decision</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Review only after decision
</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8111in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>L
Chandra Kumar Case, 1997 </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0576in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Tribunals
part of Judiciary system</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Tribunal appeals goes to
HC</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.602in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Exclusion
of jurisdiction of HC &amp; SC w.r.t tribunal matters is unconstitutional </p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Rojer
Mathew case 2019</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.984in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Speaker
certifying <span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>money bill</span>
under judicial review </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Tribunal
members appointment</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.784in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.1993in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Qualification and
appointment rules w.r.t Tribunals</span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Qualification and
appointment rules w.r.t Tribunal members conferred primacy on
Government which is invalid </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Lack of judicial
dominance in the Search-cum-Selection Committee is in direct
contravention of the doctrine of separation of powers and an
encroachment on the judicial domain</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>NOTE:
Except NCLAT, the selection committee for all other tribunals was
made up either entirely from personnel within or nominated by the
Central government or comprised a majority of personnel from the
Central government.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>While
the selection committee for NCLAT consisted of two judges and two
secretaries to the Government of India, all other committees
comprised<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>only one judg
e and
three secretaries to the Government of India.</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Quashed </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Tribunal,
Appellate Tribunal and other Authorities (Qualifications, Experience
and other Conditions of Service of Members) Rules, 201</span><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>7</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>However, Central Govt is
empowered to frame rules related to tribunals</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Members of tribunals
should not be given rank and status akin to Constitutional
functionaries </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Issues delegated to Govt
for further examination</span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Central Govt must
undertake </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Verdana;
font-size:11.0pt'>Judicial Impact Assessment</span><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'> to analyse </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Via
media of merging of all tribunals into</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Inequitable
distribution of workload of different tribunals</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Whether
direct appeals should be provided to SC against tribunals or should
they necessary be first tested by high courts</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Summary</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Judiciary must have an
equal say in the appointment of members of tribunals </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Speaker certifying Money
bill is under Judicial review</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Issues referred to larger
bench</span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>What are the scope and
nuances of money bill?</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Prakash
Singh Case, 2006</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Police
reforms</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.5736in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>NALSA
vs Union of India case 2014</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.902in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Transgenders
rights</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.7152in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>transgender people should
be recognized as a third gender and enjoy all fundamental rights, while
also being entitled to specific benefits in education and employment</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Keisham</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Meghachandra
Singh vs.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>the Hon­</
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>’b
Speaker Manipur Legislative</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Assembly,
2020</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.902in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Speaker's
adjudicatory powers relating to Anti defection law</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.6798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2055in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Recommended&nbsp;that
Parliament&nbsp;should&nbsp;rethink&nbsp;as&nbsp;to
whether&nbsp;disqualification&nbsp;petitions entrusted to Speaker
as&nbsp;a&nbsp;quasi­judicial&nbsp;authority&nbsp;when suc
Speaker&nbsp;continues&nbsp;to&nbsp;belong&nbsp;to&nbsp;a&nbsp;particular&nbsp;political&nbsp;party
either&nbsp;de&nbsp;jure or&nbsp;de&nbsp;facto</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>&nbsp;Parliament&nbsp;may&nbsp;seriously&nbsp;consider&nbsp;a
Constitutional&nbsp;amendment&nbsp;to setup a </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>
permanent&nbsp;Tribunal</span><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>&nbsp;headed&nbsp;by a
retired&nbsp;Supreme&nbsp;Court&nbsp;judge&nbsp;or&nbsp;a
retired&nbsp;Chief&nbsp;Justice&nbsp;of&nbsp;a&nbsp;High
Court,&nbsp;or&nbsp;some&nbsp;other&nbsp;outside&nbsp;independent&nbsp;mechanism</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Kedar
Nath Singh vs State of Bihar 1962</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>SC</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.902in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Sedition
law (Section 124A)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.7638in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2125in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>only a “viole
revolution” against the government attracts the charge of sediti
n.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>A free expression of
disapprobation against the ruling government's action with an intention
to better the condition of the people is not treason</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>It has to be</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>against&nbsp;the
state,&nbsp;not&nbsp;against&nbsp;the&nbsp;government</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'> and also
there&nbsp;has&nbsp;to&nbsp;be&nbsp;a&nbsp;</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>direct
incitement&nbsp;to&nbsp;violence.</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.9083in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Supreme Court
of India vs Subhash Chandra Agarwal case 2019</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Office
of CJI under RTI</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.5541in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h3>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Judgementsw.r.tMoneybill">Judgements w.r.t Money bill</h3>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Mohd.
Saeed Siddiqui v. State of UP (2014)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Speaker
decision of money bill is not judicially reviewable</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.7055in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Speaker
decision to classify a draft statute as a money bill, was not judicially
reviewable, even if the classification was incorrect and argument is that
error is nothing not more than that the procedural irregularity</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.8888in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Rojer
Mathew case 2019</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9166in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Speaker
certifying <span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>money bill</span>
under judicial review </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:5.6368in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.1993in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Issues referred to larger
bench</span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>What are the scope and
nuances of money bill?</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h3>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h3>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Judgementsw.r.tPreamble">Judgements w.r.t Preamble</h3>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.4951in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Berubari
Union Case 1960</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.0722in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Preamble
<span style='font-weight:bold'>not part</span> of Constitution. </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>However
some assistance derived from interpretation of preamble</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.9569in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<ul style='margin-left:.2125in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:
0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:0in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>President referred to SC
on implementation of Indo-Pak agreement relating to Berubari union( a
thana, WB) and exchange of enclaves.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Parliament not empowered
to make agreements to cede a territory except by Constitutional
amendments</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:1.4951in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Kesavananda
Bharati Case 1973</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.0972in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Preamble<span
style='font-weight:bold'> is part</span> of Constitution and can be amended
subject to condition that basic structure is not amended</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.8791in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Constitution
should be read or interpreted in the light of grand and noble vision of
Preamble</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5' id="Judgementw.r.tconflictb/wFRandDPSP">Judgement
w.r.t conflict b/w FR and DPSP</h3>

<h5 style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;
color:#2E75B5'>&nbsp;</h5>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt;margin-left:.3333in' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.5701in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1951
Champakam Dorairajan Case</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.5006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Accordingly
Parliament</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.5006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1967
Golaknath case</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.5006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1971
Parliament counter</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.5006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1973
Kesavananda Bharati Case</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.5006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1976
42nd CAA</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.5006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1978
44rth CAA</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.5006in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1980
Minerva Mills case </p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Judgementsw.r.tBasicStructureofConstitution">Judgements w.r.t Basic Structure of Constitution</h3>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt;margin-left:.3333in' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3104in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1951
Shankari Prasad Case</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3104in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1967
Golaknath Case</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3104in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1971
24th CAA </p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1973
Kesavananda Bharati Case</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3104in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1976
42nd CAA</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3104in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1980
Minerva Mills Case</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3104in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>1981
Waman Rao Case</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Judgementsw.r.tJudiciarylegislating">Judgements w.r.t Judiciary legislating</h3>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<div style='direction:ltr'>

<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0097in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Suresh
Seth v. Commissioner, Indore Municipal Corporation (2005)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.3729in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Under&nbsp;our&nbsp;Constitutional
scheme,&nbsp;Parliament&nbsp;and&nbsp;Legislative&nbsp;Assemblies&nbsp;exercise&nbsp;sovereign
power&nbsp;to&nbsp;enact&nbsp;laws</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0604in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0097in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Union of India v. Deoki Nandan Aggarwal (1991)</span></p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.3534in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>The
power&nbsp;to&nbsp;legislate&nbsp;has&nbsp;not&nbsp;been&nbsp;conferred&nbsp;on&nbsp;the&nbsp;courts</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.2118in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Making&nbsp;laws&nbsp;is&nbsp;the&nbsp;function&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;legislature.&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0097in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.3534in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.0798in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>

</div>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="MohammedAhmedKhanv.ShahBanoBegum1985">Mohammed Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum 1985</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>There is
no conflict between the provisions of Section 125 of Code of Criminal Procedure
and those of the Muslim Personal Law on the question of the Muslim husbandâ
€
obligation to provide maintenance for a divorced wife who is unable to maintain
herself. Shah Bano had the right to be given maintenance money, similar to
alimony. </p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act</span>
was adopted in May 1986 and nullified the Supreme Court’s judgment in th
Shah
Bano case. </p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Divorced woman or woman who lost her sp
ouse,
If unable to maintain herself</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Magistrate has power to order
to pay her maintenance by her relatives</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>If no relatives, then
magistrate has power to order to pay her from state wakf board</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>This made that husband is
obliged only to pay alimony till iddat period only</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>This law
brought by Rajiv Gandhi to appease minority voters which nullified supreme
court judgement</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>The
message the entire episode was sensitive issues are better handled by the
Supreme Court, that will be of greater benefit.</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="SabarimalaJudgement">Sabarimala Judgement</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.75in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="WhatisSabarimalaJudgement">What is Sabarimala Judgement</h3>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>Supreme court allowed women irrespective of their age to
enter Sabarimala temple by striking down the provisions of the Kerala Hindu
Places of Public Worship (Authorisation of Entry) Rules, 1965 by 4:1 majority.</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="History">History</h3>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Rule 3(b) of the Kerala
Hindu Places of Public Worship (Authorisation of Entry) Rules, 1965 states
that “Women who are not by custom and usage allowed to enter a plac
of
public worship shall not be entitled to enter or offer worship in any
place of public worship.” which implies that entry of women aged be
ween
10 and 50 years (child bearing age) is prohibited</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="ConstitutionalprovisionsandJudgesrationale">Constitutional provisions and Judges rationale</h3>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>SC judges remarked </span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Practice&nbsp;of&nbsp;excluding
women&nbsp;did&nbsp;not&nbsp;constitute&nbsp;an&nbsp;“essenti
religious&nbsp;practice”</span></l
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Places&nbsp;of&nbsp;public
worship&nbsp;must&nbsp;be&nbsp;open&nbsp;to&nbsp;all
sections&nbsp;and&nbsp;classes&nbsp;of&nbsp;Hindus,
notwithstanding&nbsp;any&nbsp;custom&nbsp;or&nbsp;usage </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Right&nbsp;of&nbsp;women&nbsp;to&nbsp;enter&nbsp;Sabarimala
was&nbsp;guaranteed&nbsp;under&nbsp;Article 25(1)<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>[all persons are equally entitle
d to
freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate
religion]</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Morality
used&nbsp;in&nbsp;Articles&nbsp;25&nbsp;and&nbsp;26
referred&nbsp;to&nbsp;constitutional morality&nbsp;which&nbsp;includes
the&nbsp;values&nbsp;of&nbsp;justice,&nbsp;liberty,&nbsp;equality
and&nbsp;fraternity</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Barring&nbsp;menstruating
women&nbsp;from&nbsp;entering
the&nbsp;shrine&nbsp;is&nbsp;violative&nbsp;of&nbsp;</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Article&nbsp;17</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'> (abolition of
untouchability).&nbsp;</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Therefore, the
prohibition of entry of women into Kerala is violative of Articles 17, 25
and 26 and hence abolished.</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Dissenting judges view</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Sole&nbsp;woman&nbsp;judge,&nbsp;Justice
Indu&nbsp;Malhotra,&nbsp;who&nbsp;dissented, reasoned,&nbsp;</span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>“</span><sp
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>Issues&nbsp;of&nbsp;deep&nbsp;religious
sentiments&nbsp;should&nbsp;not&nbsp;be&nbsp;ordinarily
be&nbsp;interfered&nbsp;by&nbsp;the&nbsp;court</span><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>.&nbsp;The
Sabarimala&nbsp;shrine&nbsp;and&nbsp;the&nbsp;deity&nbsp;is
protected&nbsp;by&nbsp;Article&nbsp;25&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;Constitution
of&nbsp;India&nbsp;and&nbsp;the&nbsp;religious
practices&nbsp;cannot&nbsp;be&nbsp;solely&nbsp;tested on&nbsp;the&nbsp;basis&nbsp;of&nbsp;Article&nbsp;14.
&nbsp;Notions
of&nbsp;rationality&nbsp;cannot&nbsp;be&nbsp;invoked&nbsp;in
matters&nbsp;of&nbsp;religion...&nbsp;What&nbsp;constitutes
essential&nbsp;religious&nbsp;practice&nbsp;is
the&nbsp;religious&nbsp;community&nbsp;to&nbsp;decide,
not&nbsp;for&nbsp;the&nbsp;court.&nbsp;India&nbsp;is&nbsp;a&nbsp;diverse
country.&nbsp;Constitutional&nbsp;morality
would&nbsp;allow&nbsp;all&nbsp;to&nbsp;practise
their&nbsp;beliefs.&nbsp;The&nbsp;court&nbsp;should&nbsp;not interfere&nbsp;unless&nbsp;if&nbsp;there&nbsp;is&nbsp;any&nbsp;aggrieved
person&nbsp;from&nbsp;that&nbsp;section or&nbsp;religion&quot;</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:1.125in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="Conclusion">Conclusion</h3>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>It is interpretative and is under review by a larger SC
bench</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="DoctrineofReasonableness">Doctrine of Reasonableness </h2>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>Also Reasonable classification</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>Kesavananda Bharati Case, 1973</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>In case of affirmative action in reasonable
differentiation/discrimination </p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Test of reasonableness</span></li>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Classification must be based
on intelligible differentia which distinguishes persons or things that
are grouped together from those that are left out of group</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>and the differentia must have a <
/span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>rational
nexus to the objects</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
12.0pt'> sought to be achieved by the executive or legislative action
under challenge</span></li>
</ul>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Citizenship Amendment Act
(2019)</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="DoctrineofProportionality">Doctrine of Proportionality </h2>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>State restrictions vs Fundamental rights </p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>Ex: Banning internet in Kashmir after revocation of Article
370 is against Right to Freedom </p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>