General

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="FederalSystem">Federal System</h2>

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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-style:italic'>Federal</span></p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-style:italic'>Unitary</span></p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>India,
Russia, US, Canada, Brazil,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
</span>Switzerland, Argentina, Australia</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>China</span>, Japan, <span style='font-weight:bold'>UK,</span>
France, Italy, Sweden, Spain</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Written
constitution</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Supremacy
of constitution</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Rigid
Constitution</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI"' lang=en-US><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'>Dual Govt </span><span style='font-size:9.0pt'>(national/federal/union
and state(US)/provincial(Canada)/</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
font-size:9.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>cantons</span><span
style='font-size:9.0pt'>(Switzerland)/</span><span style='font-weight:bold;
text-decoration:underline;font-size:9.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>republics</span><span style='font-size:9.0pt'>(Russia))</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Independent</span> Judiciary [NOTE: NOT INTEGRATED]</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Bicameral
Legislature</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Division
of powers b/w national and regional govts</p>
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<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Written/Unwritten
constitution</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Supreme/Not
supreme</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Rigid/flexible</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Single
govt (regional govts may be created by national)</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>May/May
not be independent</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>May
be bicameral/unicameral</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>No
division of powers</p>
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<h3 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;color:#5B9BD5'
lang=en-US id="UnitaryfeaturesinIndianConstitution:">Unitary features in Indian Constitution: </h3>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt' lang=en-US>Strong Centre, States destructible, Single constitution,
Single citizenship, Flexible constitution, No equality in state representation,
emergency provisions, <span style='font-weight:bold'>integrated judiciary</span>,
integrated audit machinery, integrated election machinery, All India services,
Parliament authority over State bills, Presidential veto over certain state
bills, appointment of Governor<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></
p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

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lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="BridgeforCentre-StateandInter-Staterelations">Bridge for Centre-State and Inter-State relations</h2>

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Inter State Councils (plural)
- constitutional - 263</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Zonal Councils - Statutory
&amp; North Eastern Council - Statutory</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Governors' conference
presided by President</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Chief Ministers conference
presided by PM</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Home Ministers conference
presided by Union Home Minister</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Chief Justices conference
presided by CJI</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Conference of Vice
Chancellors (Minister of HRD?)</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Chief Secretaries Conference
presided by Cabinet Secretary</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Conference of Inspector
General of Police</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>NITI Ayog General Council</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Full faith and credit is to
be given to all public acts(legislative and executive), records and state</span></li>
</ul>

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lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

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lang=en-US id="dummy">&nbsp;</h2>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="ZonalCouncils">Zonal Councils</h2>

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'>Statutory bodies established
under</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> States Reorganisation Act 1956</span></li>
</ul>

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Deliberate and </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-style:italic;font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>advisory</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> bodies</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>There are 5 five Zonal
councils namely:</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>The Northern Zonal Council,
comprising the States of Haryana, HP, J&amp;K, Punjab, </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Rajasthan</span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>, NCR and UT Chandigarh.</span></li>
</ul>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>The Central Zonal Council,
comprising the States of </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Chhattisgarh</span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>, </span><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:yellow;mso-highlight:
yellow'>Uttarakhand</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt'>, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>The Eastern Zonal Council,
comprising the States of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, and West Bengal.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>The Western Zonal Council,
comprising the States of Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra and the Union
Territories of Daman &amp; Diu and Dadra &amp; Nagar Haveli.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>The Southern Zonal Council,
comprising the States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu,
Telangana and the Union Territory of Puducherry.</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>**The North Eastern States
i.e. (i) Assam (ii) Arunachal Pradesh (iii) Manipur (iv) Tripura (v)
Mizoram (vi) Meghalaya (vii) Sikkim and (viii) Nagaland are not included
in the Zonal Councils and their special problems are looked after by the </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>North
Eastern Council</span><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>,
set up under the </span><span style='font-weight:bold;text-decoration:
underline;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>North Eastern Council Act,
1972</span></li>
</ul>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Composition:</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Chairman – </span><
pan
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Union Home
Minister </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Vice Chairman – The
Chief
Ministers of the States included in each zone act as Vice-Chairman of the
Zonal Council for that zone by rotation, each holding office for a period
of one year at a time.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Members- Chief Minister and
two other Ministers as nominated by the Governor from each of the States
and </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt'>two members from Union Territories</span><span style='font-family:
Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'> included in the zone.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Advisers- One person
nominated by the NITI Ayog for each of the Zonal Councils, Chief
Secretaries and another officer/Development Commissioner nominated by
each of the States included in the Zone.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Union Ministers are also
invited to participate in the meetings of Zonal Councils depending upon
necessity</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

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lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle;color:black'
lang=en-US><span style='text-decoration:underline;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:11.0pt'>Objectives</span></li>
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<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle;color:black'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Bringing
out </span><span style='font-weight:bold;font-family:Calibri;font-size:
11.0pt'>national integration.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle;color:black'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Arresting
the growth of acute State consciousness, regionalism, linguism and
particularistic tendencies.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle;color:black'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Enabling
the Centre and the States to co-operate and exchange ideas and
experiences.</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle;color:black'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Establishing
a climate of co-operation amongst the States for successful and speedy
execution of development projects.</span></li>
</ul>
</ul>

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lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:9.0pt;
color:#595959' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>

<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>