Constitution Evolution

<ul style='margin-left:.202in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;margin-top:0in;
margin-bottom:0in'>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5' id="ObjectivesResolution">Objectives
Resolution</h2>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:11.0pt'>&nbsp;</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>It is the resolution
that defined the aims (objectives) of the constitution, moved by
Jawaharlal Nehru in the Constituent Assembly in 13-12-1946 and
unanimously adopted in 22-01-1947</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Summary</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>India is an
independent, sovereign, republic; </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>India shall be a Union
of erstwhile British Indian territories, Indian States, and </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>other
parts outside</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt'> British India and Indian States as are </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>willing
to be a part of the Union</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";
font-size:12.0pt'>; </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>Territories forming
the Union shall be autonomous units and exercise all powers and
functions of the Government and administration, except those assigned to
or vested in the Union; </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>All </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>powers
and authority</span><span style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:
12.0pt'> of sovereign and independent India and its constitution</span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>
shall flow from the people; </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>All people of India
shall be guaranteed and secured social, economic and political justice;
equality of status and opportunities and equality before law; and
fundamental freedoms - of speech, expression, belief, faith, worship,
vocation, association and action - subject to law and public morality; </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>The minorities,
backward and tribal areas, depressed and other backward classes shall be
provided adequate safeguards; </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>The territorial
integrity of the Republic and its sovereign rights on land, sea and air
shall be maintained according to justice and law of civilized nations; </span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>The land would make
full and willing contribution to the promotion of </span><span
style='font-weight:bold;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt'>world
peace and welfare of mankind. </span></li>
</ul>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='color:#000000;margin:0in;text-indent:-.1666in;font-family:Calibri;
font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5' lang=en-US id="SourcesofConstitution"<img
width=16 height=16 alt=Byheart src="https://static.wixstatic.com/media/760013_bce95a45add849f9b50120d225499a56~mv2.png">&nbsp;Sources
of Constitution</h2>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<div style='direction:ltr'>
<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
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<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3138in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Government
of India Act 1935 </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:8.6354in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Federal
Scheme [Quasi federal from Canada]</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Three
Lists</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Office
of Governor [Appointment from Canada]</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Judiciary
</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Public
Service Commission</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Emergency
Provisions [356 from Germany]</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Administrative
Details </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Instrument
of Instructions [DPSP-Also from Ireland]</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Structural
Part</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3138in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>British
Constitution </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:8.6354in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Parliamentary
form of government </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>The
idea of single citizenship </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>The
idea of the Rule of law</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Procedure
established by Law</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Equality
before law </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Institution
of Speaker and his role</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Law
making procedure</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Cabinet
system</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Prerogative
writs</span> (privilege to certain class/institutions)</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President(nominal
head)</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Bicameral
parliament</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Office of
Profit</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>First
Past the post</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3138in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>United
States Constitution</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:8.6354in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Preamble </span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Fundamental
Rights </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Federal
structure of government [Quasi federal from Canada]</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Electoral
College </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Separation
of powers among the three branches of the government </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Independence of the judiciary </span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Judicial
review </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Equal
Protection under law </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>President
as supreme commander of armed forces </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Impeachment of President [Election from Irish]</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Removal
of Supreme court and high court Judges</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Post of Vice President</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3138in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Irish
Constitution</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:8.6354in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Directive
principles of state policy {Ireland itself borrowed it from Spain} </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Nomination of members to Rajyasabha</span>
[Nomination from Irish and Election from South Africa]</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Method of election of President [Impeachment from
US]</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Appointment
of state governors by centre (both Canada and Ireland)</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Advisory
jurisdiction of Supreme court (both Canada and Ireland)</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3138in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Australian
Constitution</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:8.7048in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Freedom
of trade and commerce within the country and between the states </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Power
of the national legislature to make laws for implementing treaties, even on
matters outside normal Federal jurisdiction </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Concurrent</span> List </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Joint
sitting of Parliament</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3138in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>French
Constitution</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:8.6354in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Ideals
of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Republic</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3138in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Canadian
Constitution</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:8.6354in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Quasi-federal form of government </span>—
federal
system with a strong central government </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Distribution
of powers between the central government and state governments </p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Residual
powers retained by the central government</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Appointment
of state governors by centre (both Canada and Ireland)</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Advisory
jurisdiction of Supreme court (both Canada and Ireland)</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3138in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Soviet
Union</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:8.6354in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Fundamental Duties </span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Idea
of social, economic, political <span style='font-weight:bold'>justice</span>
in preamble</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Planning
of National Economy</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3333in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Germany(Weimar
Constitution)</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:8.6159in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Emergency Provision Under article 356 </span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Suspension
of Fundamental rights</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3138in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>South
Africa</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:8.6354in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Amendment of Constitution</span></p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Election of Rajyasabha members</span> [Nomination
from Irish and Election from South Africa] </p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.3138in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Japan</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:8.6354in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>Due
Procedure of Law [Not in India according to Indian Constitution]</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></p
<p style='margin:0in;margin-left:.375in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:12.0pt'
lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>References</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>British Parliamentary, US
presidential</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>US written, British
Unwritten</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>British - parliamentary
Sovereignty , US - Judicial Supremacy, India - mix</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>US - Dual citizenship</span></li>
</ul>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>Direct democracy -
Switzerland</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Note:</p>
<ol type=1 style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;
font-weight:normal;font-style:normal'>
<li value=1 style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle'
lang=en-US><span style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;font-weight:
normal;font-style:normal;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt;background:
yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Conversion of federal into Unitary one
during emergency is a unique feature of Indian constitution</span></li>
<ul type=circle style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt'>It is not inspired from any
constitution. Don’t confuse with Weimer constitution </span></l
</ul>
</ol>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<h2 style='margin:0in;font-family:Calibri;font-size:14.0pt;color:#2E75B5'
lang=en-US id="ComparisonofConstitution">Comparison of Constitution</h2>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:"Nirmala UI";font-size:12.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<div style='direction:ltr'>
<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:6.459in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>India</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:4.1875in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>US</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.459in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Written
constitution and Preamble</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.1875in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Written
constitution and Preamble</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.459in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Indestructible
union of destructible states</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.1875in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Indestructible
union of indestructible states</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.459in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Single
citizenship</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.1875in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Dual
citizenship</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.459in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Parliamentary
System</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.1875in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Presidential
system</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.459in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Three
lists</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Legislative
power for residuary subjects left to Union</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.2562in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Only
single list - Federal list</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Legislative
power for residuary subjects left to states</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.4784in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Constituent
power vested with parliament and in few cases with State legislature</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.168in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Separate
institution constituent convention</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:6.459in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>CAG is
not part of legislature </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:4.1875in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>CAG is
part of legislature </p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<div style='direction:ltr'>
<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:2.9652in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>India</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:2.6013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Canada</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9652in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Three
lists</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.6708in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Two
lists - Federal and Provincial</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9847in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Mix of
rigid and flexible constitution</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.5819in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Rigid
constitution</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9652in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Federalism
with strong centre</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.6013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Federalism
with strong centre</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.9652in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Parliamentary
Govt</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:2.6013in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Parliamentary
Govt </p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<div style='direction:ltr'>
<table border=1 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 valign=top style='direction:ltr;
border-collapse:collapse;border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:
1pt' title="" summary="">
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:3.184in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>India</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
background-color:yellow;vertical-align:top;width:7.8944in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>British
(UK)</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.184in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Written
constitution</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:7.8944in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Unwritten
</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.184in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Elected
head</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:7.8944in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Monarchial
head</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.184in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Constitution
is supreme</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:7.8944in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Parliament
is supreme</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.184in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>PM
shall be member of parliament</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:7.8944in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>PM
shall be member of lower house of parliament</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.184in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Concept
present but not institutionalised </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:7.8944in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Shadow
cabinet institution present</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.184in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Federal</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:7.8944in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US><span
style='font-weight:bold'>Unitary</span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.184in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Not
required </p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:7.8944in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>Ministers
required to counter sign the official acts of the crown and are held liable
in the courts for those acts</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:3.184in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>CAG is
not part of Parliament</p>
</td>
<td style='border-style:solid;border-color:#A3A3A3;border-width:1pt;
vertical-align:top;width:7.8944in;padding:2.0pt 3.0pt 2.0pt 3.0pt'>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>CAG is
officer of Parliament </p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
<ul type=disc style='margin-left:.375in;direction:ltr;unicode-bidi:embed;
margin-top:0in;margin-bottom:0in'>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Russian Parliament name Duma</span></li>
<li style='margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;vertical-align:middle' lang=en-US><span
style='font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt'>Japanese parliament or Diet</span></li>
</ul>
<p style='margin:0in;font-family:Verdana;font-size:11.0pt' lang=en-US>&nbsp;</p>
</ul>